Finally, the last major tool I'd like to discuss is the IDE. An IDE is software that combines many of the previously discussed tools into a single suite of tools. This has its pros and cons, but the major point is: by bundling all your tools together, you have a great cohesion between your tools but it can be hard to replace any single tool you don't like. Think of an IDE like buying a prefilled toolbox from the store - it will have everything you need for a while, but eventually, you might need something that doesn't fit in the box and that could be a pain.
I hope this introduction was helpful! Check back tomorrow for the post on operating systems! Comment with questions and comments and come discuss with me on Twitter!