a81d20700a0ecf9560eb6c57ff38c2b5829a6645
—
williamvds
6 years ago
f6ec1e9

afp notes

1 files changed,192insertions(+),0deletions(-) A afp/lectures.md

A afp/lectures.md => afp/lectures.md +192 -0

@@ 0,0 1,192 @@# Functors ```haskell class Functor f where fmap :: (a -> b) -> f a -> f b ``` ## Examples ### Maybe ```haskell instance Functor Maybe where -- fmap :: (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b fmap _ Nothing = Nothing fmap g (Just x) = Just (g x) ``` ### Lists ```haskell instance Functor [] where -- fmap :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b] fmap = map ``` - Applies a function to all elements ## Laws ```haskell fmap id = id fmap (g . h) = fmap g . fmap h ``` - 1st: `fmap` preserves the identity function - 2nd: `fmap` preserves function composition # Applicative Functors - Allow mapping a function with any number of arguments, rather than just ones with a single argument ```haskell class Functor f => Applicative f where pure :: a -> f a (<*>) :: f (a -> b) -> f a -> f b ``` ## Examples ### Maybe ```haskell instance Applicative Maybe where -- pure :: a -> Maybe a pure = Just -- (<*>) :: Maybe (a -> b) -> Maybe a -> Maybe b Nothing <*> _ = Nothing (Just g) <*> mx = fmap g mx > pure (+1) <*> Just 1 Just 2 > pure (+) <*> Just 1 <*> Just 2 Just 3 > pure (+) <*> Nothing <*> Just 2 Nothing ``` - Supports _exceptional_ programming - applying pure functions to arguments which may fail ### Lists ```haskell instance Applicative [] where -- pure :: a -> [a] pure x = [x] -- (<*>) :: [a -> b] -> [a] -> [b] gs <*> xs = [g x | g <- gs, x <- xs] > pure (+1) <*> [1,2,3] [2,3,4] > pure (+) <*> [1] <*> [2] [3] > pure (*) <*> [1,2] <*> [3,4] [3,4,6,8] ``` -- Applicative style for lists takes a list of functions and a list of arguments, applying each in turn and returning a list of all results ## Laws ```haskell pure id <*> x = x pure (g x) = pure g <*> pure x x <*> pure y = pure (\g -> g y) <*> x x <*> (y <*> z) = (pure (.) <*> x <*> y) <*> z ``` - 1st: `pure` preserves the identity function - applying `pure` to it gives an applicative version of it - 2nd: `pure` preserves function application - it distributes over normal function application to give applicative application - 3rd: When an effectful function is applied to a pure argument, the order in which the components are evaluated doesn't matter - 4th: (Compensating for types) `<*>` is associative # Monads Comes from a branch of mathematics called _branch theory_. ```haskell class Applicative m => Monad m where (>>=) :: m a -> (a -> m b) -> mb return :: a -> ma return = pure ``` ## Examples ### Maybe ```haskell instance Monad Maybe where -- (>>=) :: Maybe a -> (a -> Maybe b) -> Maybe b Nothing >>= f = Nothing (Just x) >>= f = f x ``` ### Lists ```haskell instance Monad [] where -- (>>=) :: [a] -> (a -> [b]) -> [b] [] >>= f = [] xs >>= f = concat $ map f xs -- (map f xs) :: [[b]], use concat to flatten = [y | x <- xs, y <- f x] > pairs [1, 2] [3, 4] [(1, 3), (1, 4), (2, 3), (2, 4)] -- The cartesian product of two lists pairs :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a, b)] pairs xs ys = do x <- xs y <- ys return (x,y) = xs >>= \x -> ys >>= \y -> return (x, y) -- similar to list comprehension [(x, y) | x <- xs, y <- ys] ``` List comprehensions are useful only to lists, whereas the do notation is general ### State ```haskell type State = ... type ST = State -> State -- state transformer: take current state and return new type ST a = State -> (a, State) -- typed state transformer, of what is returned Char -> ST Int = Char -> State -> (Int, State) -- ST abstracts away the state from the function type type ST a = State -> (a, State) -- Needs to be data in order to make a class definition newtype ST a = S(State -> (a, State)) -- Get rid of 'dummy' constructor app (S st) s = st s -- TODO create functor and applicative instance Monad ST where -- return :: a -> ST a return x = S (\s -> (x, s)) -- s is the only State available, x is of type a -- (>>=) :: ST a -> (a -> ST b) -> ST b st >> f = S (\s -> let (x, s') = app st s in app (f x) s') -- state transformer applied to s, returning value x and new state s' -- apply f to x and s', returning two new values (eg names y and s'') ``` ## Laws ```haskell return x >>= f = f x mx >>= return = mx ``` - Link between `return` and `>>=` - 1st: `return`ing a value and feeding it into a monadic function = applying the function to the value - 2nd: Feeding the result of a monadic computation into `return` is the same as performing the computation - `return` is the identity for `>>=` ```haskell (mx >>= f) >>= g = mx >>= (\x -> (f x >>= g)) ``` - (Compensating for binding) `>>=` is associative