~usa/constitution

a0d2d486 — Second Continental Congress 243 years ago master
Merge branch 'articles-of-confederation'

According to the order of the day, The Honorable John Hanson and Daniel Carroll,
two of the delegates for the State of Maryland, in pursuance of the act of the
legislature of that State, entitled "An act to empower the delegates of this
State in Congress to subscribe and ratify the Articles of Confederation," which
was read in Congress the 12 of February last, and a copy thereof entered on the
minutes, did, in behalf of the said State of Maryland, sign and ratify the said
articles, by which act the Confederation of the United States of America was
completed, each and every of the Thirteen United States, from New Hampshire to
Georgia, both included, having adopted and confirmed, and by their delegates in
Congress, ratified the same.

To all whom these presents shall come, we the undersigned delegates of the
states affixed to our names, send greetings.

Whereas the Delegates of the United States of America in Congress assembled did
on the 15th day of November in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven Hundred
and Seventy seven, and in the Second Year of the Independence of America agree
to certain articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States of
New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations,
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia,
North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia in the Words following, viz.

And Whereas it hath pleased the Great Governor of the World to incline the
hearts of the legislatures we respectively represent in Congress, to approve of,
and to authorize us to ratify the said articles of confederation and perpetual
union. Know Ye that we the undersigned delegates, by virtue of the power and
authority to us given for that purpose, do by these presents, in the name and in
behalf of our respective constituents, fully and entirely ratify and confirm
each and every of the said articles of confederation and perpetual union, and
all and singular the matters and things therein contained: And we do further
solemnly plight and engage the faith of our respective constituents, that they
shall abide by the determinations of the United States in Congress assembled, on
all questions, which by the confederation are submitted to them. And that the
articles thereof shall be inviolably observed by the states we respectively
represent, and that the union shall be perpetual.

In Witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands in Congress. Done at
Philadelphia in the state of Pennsylvania the ninth day of July, in the Year of
our Lord one Thousand seven Hundred and Seventy-eight, and in the third year of
the independence of America.

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*On the part and behalf of the State of New Hampshire.*

Signed-off-by: Josiah Bartlett <jbartlett@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: John Wentworth, Jr. <jwentworth@congress.invalid>

August 8th, 1778

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*On the part and behalf of the State of Massachusetts Bay.*

Signed-off-by: John Hancock <jhancock@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Samuel Adams <sadams@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Elbridge Gerry <egerry@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Francis Dana <fdana@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: James Lovell <jlovell@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Samuel Holten <sholten@congress.invalid>

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*On the part and behalf of the State of Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations.*

Signed-off-by: William Ellery <wellery@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Henry Marchant <hmarchant@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: John Collins <jcollins@congress.invalid>

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*On the part and behalf of the State of Connecticut.*

Signed-off-by: Roger Sherman <rsherman@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Samuel Huntington <shuntington@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Oliver Wolcott <owolcott@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Titus Hosmer <thosmer@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Andrew Adams <aadams@congress.invalid>

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*On the part and behalf of the State of New York.*

Signed-off-by: James Duane <jduane@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Francis Lewis <flewis@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: William Duer <wduer@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Gouverneur Morris <gmorris@congress.invalid>

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*On the part and behalf of the State of New Jersey.*

Signed-off-by: John Witherspoon <jwitherspoon@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Nathaniel Scudder <nscudder@congress.invalid>

November 26th, 1778

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*On the part and behalf of the State of Pennsylvania.*

Signed-off-by: Robert Morris <rmorris@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Roberdeau <droberdeau@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Jonathan Bayard Smith <jbsmith@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: William Clingar <wclingar@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Joseph Reed <jreed@congress.invalid>

July 22nd, 1778

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*On the part and behalf of the State of Delaware.*

Signed-off-by: Thomas McKean <tmckean@congress.invalid>
February 22nd, 1779

Signed-off-by: John Dickinson <jdickinson@congress.invalid>
May 5th, 1779

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*On the part and behalf of the State of Maryland.*

Signed-off-by: Nicholas Van Dyke <nvdyke@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: John Hanson <jhanson@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Daniel Carroll <dcarroll@congress.invalid>

March 1st, 1781

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*On the part and behalf of the State of Virginia.*

Signed-off-by: Richard Henry Lee <rhlee@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: John Banister <jbanister@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Thomas Adams <tadams@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: John Harvie <jharvie@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Francis Lightfoot Lee <fllee@congress.invalid>

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*On the part and behalf of the State of North Carolina.*

Signed-off-by: John Penn <jpenn@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Cornelius Harnett <charnett@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: John Williams <jwilliams@congress.invalid>

July 21st, 1778

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*On the part and behalf of the State of South Carolina.*

Signed-off-by: Henry Laurens <hlaurens@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: William Henry Drayton <whdrayton@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: John Mathews <jmathews@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Richard Hutson <rhutson@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Thomas Heyward, Jr. <theyward@congress.invalid>

----

*On the part and behalf of the State of Georgia.*

Signed-off-by: John Walton <jwalton@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Edward Telfair <etelfair@congress.invalid>
Signed-off-by: Edward Langworthy <elangworthy@congress.invalid>

July 24th, 1778

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=019/lljc019.db&recNum=224
ref: https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/SMAN-107/pdf/SMAN-107-pg935.pdf
c1032376 — Second Continental Congress 246 years ago articles-of-confederation
Issue final articles of confederation as approved by Congress

A copy of the confederation being made out, and sundry small amendments made in
the diction, without altering the sense, the same was agreed to, and is as
follows.

*Ordered,* That the committee appointed to revise and arrange the articles of
confederation, have three hundred copies printed and lodged with the secretary,
to be subject to the future orders of Congress.

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=154
b07a49eb — Second Continental Congress 246 years ago
Prepare second report on the articles of confederation

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=154
note: date is approximate
9bc0ba2c — Second Continental Congress 246 years ago
Integrate previous amendments and other changes

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This commit includes substantial additions to the articles as they appear in the
Second Report in the cited reference. I could not find other entries in the
Journals of the Continental Congress referencing these additions.

ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=154
note: date is approximate
47aea5cf — Second Continental Congress 246 years ago
Finalize amendments to the articles

Congress took into consideration the articles reported by the committee as
proper to be included in the confederation, and the following were adopted.

*Resolved,* That a committee of three be appointed to revise and arrange the
articles of confederation agreed to, and to prepare a circular letter to the
respective states to accompany the said articles:

The members chosen, Mr. Richard Henry Lee, Mr. James Duane, and Mr. James
Lovell.

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=146
b162e159 — Second Continental Congress 246 years ago
Modify and adopt clauses re: extradition and faith & credit

Congress resumed the consideration of the articles reported by the committee as
proper to be included in the confederation;

And upon the question put, the following were adopted:

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=142
64bf89ca — Second Continental Congress 246 years ago
Adopt article guaranteeing Congress freedom of speech and travel

Congress took into consideration the new articles proposed to be added to the
confederation; Whereupon, *Resolved,* That the following be included:

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=140
4bf6c947 — James Duane 246 years ago
Rephrase article on resolving ambiguous jurisdiction of private lands

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=137
note: date is approximate
d203c5e6 — James Duane 246 years ago
Add articles concerning succession of debt and private territorial disputes

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=136
ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=137
note: date is approximate
c2237742 — Richard Henry Lee 246 years ago
Ensure right to travel freely between states

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=135
note: date is approximate
ed1b892b — Richard Law 246 years ago
Draft new articles for consideration

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=009/lljc009.db&recNum=134
note: date is approximate
25320082 — Second Continental Congress 248 years ago
Second printed form of the draft articles

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=lljc&fileName=005/lljc005.db&recNum=258
5f7e5754 — John Dickinson 248 years ago
Committee draft ready for Congress

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(dg004186))
note: date is approximate
17664c75 — John Dickinson 248 years ago
Second draft

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ref: https://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/hlaw:@field(DOCID+@lit(dg004186))
note: date is approximate
ebf7cb0e — Second Continental Congress 248 years ago
Initial commit