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bddba80b99c7c2e3307d7d068987a60344f30c2d — Andre Alves Garzia 2 years ago
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# Introduction

Welcome to the vObject land! This is a simple library that provides vanilla vObject routines and vCard/iCalendar implementations. To know more about vObject, vCard and iCalendar browse the other sections on the sidebar.

This library is an offspring of a need of mine. I was building a groupware application and did not want to make my app a friendless application, so I checked the net to see if there was any standard about groupware, most specifically contacts and calendar. You can't imagine my surprise when I discovered that both standards were indeed related and were very easy to understand. In the following weeks I created my routines and thought that people in the community might benefit from it. As of now, the library contains 154 functions and handlers dealing with every kind of need. This number will grow fast in the next releases, for this is just the low level stuff, higher level is coming. The generation of vCard and iCalendar now is done with high level functions, both got their own handler/function sets but parsing is done with plain vObject calls.

> **Notice:** An understanding of the vObject format is needed before playing. This library is a direct implementation of the vCard and iCalendar RFC so the knowledge of those RFC is required to fully understand what is going on. Don't worry it's easier than you think, those RFCs are small. Knowing the property names and it's parameters is just what you need to generate and parse the files.

Included in this prroject vObjectLib which is the library, one or more demo stacks and this file with some docs and the RFCs. Beware that the source code of vObjectLib is fully commented and IS THE PRIME SOURCE OF DOCUMENTATION, each handler and function there got it's own multiline description with summary, parameter and return value descriptions. 

> **Advise:** please read the RFCs, this way you'll know how to generate everything.

## Initial Release

Andre Alves Garzia
5 de Abril de 2005
Niteroi, Brasil.

## Updated

Andre Alves Garzia
18 of February, 2019
London, GB

# Why use vObjects?

The answer is simple, vObjects are portable and easy to understand. The task of parsing and generating vObject is easier then XML or *ML solutions. vObjects are portable across platforms and operating systems. vObjects are easy to integrate to popular internet protocols like HTTP and eMail.

A vObject (also refered some places as vFormat) is a text file that contains one or more vObject-like objects, this objects may contain more objects. It's a simple structured text file delimited by linefeeds, each line is a property, the objects are delimited by BEGIN and END tags. We could describe an orange using a hypotetical vFruit file like this:

~~~
BEGIN:VFRUIT
KIND:Orange
FORMAT:Spherical
VITAMINS:C
END:VFRUIT
~~~

See, there's the begin and end tags that enclose out vFruit object, each line is a property of this vFruit. The properties might contain more parameters than it's value, parameters are delimited by the semicolon char ";". An example of fruit with params:

~~~
BEGIN:VFRUIT
KIND;Origin=Brazil:Orange
FORMAT:Spherical
VITAMINS:C
END:VFRUIT
~~~

Our orange is now a Brazilian one, if someone query the value of the KIND prop will see the value "Orange" but if someone inspect the parameters of KIND will see an origin param with value Brazil. This is more usefull then you think, two examples will convince you. First binary data:

~~~
BEGIN:VCARD
FN:Andre Garzia
PHOTO;Encoding=Base64:AFGHDRHBSDRYHNVDRYNVF... Base64 Data...DRTDSRGCDF==
END:VCARD
~~~

This way your vCard contact file can carry binary data, the encoding param will tell the client app the correct way to unpack that property value. Other use is to differenciate same name props like phone numbers on vCard, see:

~~~
BEGIN:VCARD
FN:Andre Garzia
TEL;WORK:55 21 26095048
TEL;CELL:55 21 99581066
END:VCARD
~~~

The telephone properties above are tagged with valueless params, querying those params will return true for they are present (even if valueless), this way you can check and discover which is my mobile number and which is my work phone.

Properties can contain arbitrary number of parameters each delimited by the semicolon character, if the property value contains a semicolon, you should escape it.

The vObject Library provides functions to list parameters and properties, to alter then in any way you like. It's pretty straight forward. Also note that vObject files are supposed to have a max line lenght of 75 chars so there's a technique to serialize huge props so that it "folds" it. This is all covered in the library using the vObjectFold and vObjectUnfold routines. The folding is just puting a Space + LF every time the line reached 75 chars, unfolding just picks this Space + LF and makes them empty. So the vObject file is very human readable.

This library provides plain vObject routines and vCard and iCalendar routines built on top of those vanilla vObject handlers/functions. vCard is a format to carry contact data, iCalendar one to carry calendar and groupware data.

As of now, generation of vCard and iCalendar files is very high level but the parsing is done with plain vObject calls, but it's easy anyway, check the demos.

Should we say we eat our own vHaggis now?

# Generating vCards

This is the easier task of vObjectLib. Our vCards are compatible with version 3.0 of the spec. There are high level handlers for that but understanding the spec is good so that you can understand the amount of power you have on your hand. Let us create a simple vCard for storing my email settings.

~~~
put empty into vCard
vCardBegin vCard
vCardAddFullName vCard, "Andre Alves Garzia"
vCardAddName vCard, "Andre", "Garzia"
vCardAddEmail vCard, "andre@example.com"
vCardEnd vCard
vCardSerialize vCard
put vCard into URL "file:andregarzia.vcf"
~~~

It's done. We first create an empty chunk then we start by putting the begin header, then our data then the end header, after that we serialize (fold) the vObject/vCard. The content of this andregarzia.vcf is:

~~~
BEGIN:VCARD
FN:Andre Alves Garzia
N:Andre;Garzia;;;
EMAIL;TYPE=internet:andre@example.com
END:VCARD
~~~

you could just open it in Apple AddressBook and it would work fine. Check the RFCs for knowing what can you add to a vCard, also check the vObjectLib source code to see the handlers we prepared, we covered the full vCard 3.0 spec. 

Let us create a non-standard vCard to carry the information of our beloved RunRev lists.

~~~
put empty into vCard
vCardBegin vCard
vCardAddFullName vCard, "How to Use Revolution."
vCardAddEmail vCard, "use-revolution@www.runrev.com"
vObjectAddParameter vCard, "email", "type", "group"
vCardEnd vCard
vCardBegin vCard
vCardAddFullName vCard, "Improve Revolution."
vCardAddEmail vCard, "improve-revolution@www.runrev.com"
vObjectAddParameter vCard, "email", "type", "group"
vCardEnd vCard
vCardSerialize vCard
~~~

The result would be:

~~~
BEGIN:VCARD
FN:How to Use Revolution.
EMAIL;TYPE=group;TYPE=internet:use-revolution@www.runrev.com
END:VCARD
BEGIN:VCARD
FN:Improve Revolution.
EMAIL;TYPE=group;TYPE=internet:improve-revolution@www.runrev.com
END:VCARD
~~~

A custom client would notice that this eMails got a Type Group and could take actions for mailing list addressess... Standard clients would just add the email normally, not knowing the Group parameter would not break the email property for standard clients. This is a huge advantage, this way you can put your own data on a vCard and guarantee that other apps will at least understand the standard part. This library vCard implementation only implement standard properties, but you can add your own using plain vObject calls.

Check the source code documentation for more info. But first, one final example.

~~~
put empty into vCard
vCardBegin vCard
vCardAddName vCard, "andre", "garzia"
vCardAddFullName vCard, "andre alves garzia"
vCardAddOrg vCard, "SoapDog Studio", "R&D dept"
vCardAddTitle vCard, "CTO"
vCardAddEmail vCard, "andre@example.com"
vObjectAddParameter vCard, "email", "type", "pref"   -- Make it prefered eMail.
vObjectAddProperty vCard, "X-ABLabel", "Prefered eMail"  -- Apple AddressBook non-standard label prop.
vObjectGroupProperties vCard, "item1", "email", "X-ABLabel"   
## Apple AddressBook will match the email to the label, for they belong to the same group.
## Let's add more data...
vCardAddEmail vCard, "agarzia@mac.com"
vObjectAddProperty vCard, "X-ABLabel", "Alternate eMail"  -- Apple AddressBook non-standard label prop.
vObjectGroupProperties vCard, "item2", "email", "X-ABLabel"   
vCardAddNote vCard, "some notes on me, I am brazilian and I never quit..."
vCardEnd vCard
vCardSerialize vCard
~~~

This will render:

~~~
BEGIN:VCARD
N:andre;garzia;;;
FN:andre alves garzia
ORG:SoapDog Studio;R&D dept
TITLE:CTO
item1.EMAIL;TYPE=pref;TYPE=internet:andre@example.com
item1.X-ABLABEL:Prefered eMail
item2.EMAIL;TYPE=internet:agarzia@mac.com
item2.X-ABLABEL:Alternate eMail
NOTE:some notes on me\, I am brazilian and I never quit...
END:VCARD
~~~

# Parsing vCards

As you know, vCards are special form of vObject that contains predefined properties and parameters which purpose is to carry contact data.

As of this first version, no high level function is ofered to parse vCards but the plain vObject routines do the job just fine. This of course will change very soon. The important functions for parsing vObjects are:

## vObjectCount

It returns the number of objects of a given type inside a vObject container. For example it can
return the number of contacts inside a vCard object.

Example: `answer vObjectCount("VCARD", allContacts) && "Contacts found inside object."`

## vObjectSplit

It splits a vObject into an array where each item corresponds to one object. With this you can split your huge vCard file containing all your contacts into an array where each member is a single contact.

Example: 
~~~
put vObjectSplit("VCARD", allContacts) into tContactArrayA
answer "First object is:" & cr & tContactArrayA[1]
~~~

## vObjectGet

It will fetch a given object from inside a collection of objects, for example aquiring the first contact of a vCard file.

Example: `put vObjectGet("vCard",  allContacts, 1) into tFirstContact`

## GetvObjectPropertyValue

it returns a property value, no matter if the property is grouped or if it contains parameters.

example: `put GetvObjectPropertyValue(tFirstContact, "email") into tContactEmail`

## GetvObjectParamValue

it returns a parameter value from a property, for example to check if the phone is a work phone use:

~~~
if getvObjectParamValue(tFirstContact, "tel", "work") then 
	put true into tIsWorkPhone
end if
~~~

this function will return the value of the parameter, case the parameter is empty but present it will return true, case it's missing then it will return false. vCard spec puts valueless parameters on props just to tag true and false values. The iCalendar spec does not use this kind of tagging scheme, it always put a value to a parameter.

# iCalendar
> **Notice:** The code for iCalendar parsing and generation is on the library file but I haven't written any documentation for it yet. Sorry. 14 years without documentation, argh.

# RFC 2425 (vCard 3 pt 1)
~~~
Network Working Group                                         T. Howes
Request for Comments: 2425                                    M. Smith
Category: Standards Track                Netscape Communications Corp.
                                                             F. Dawson
                                         Lotus Development Corporation
                                                        September 1998


             A MIME Content-Type for Directory Information

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

1.  Abstract

   This document defines a MIME Content-Type for holding directory
   information.  The definition is independent of any particular
   directory service or protocol.  The text/directory Content-Type is
   defined for holding a variety of directory information, for example,
   name, or email address, or logo. The text/directory Content-Type can
   also be used as the root body part in a multipart/related Content-
   Type for handling more complicated situations, especially those in
   which non-textual information that already has a natural MIME
   representation, for example, a photograph or sound, is to be
   represented.

   The text/directory Content-Type defines a general framework and
   format for holding directory information in a simple "type:value"
   form. We refer to "type" in this context meaning a property or
   attribute with which the value is associated. Mechanisms are defined
   to specify alternate languages, encodings and other meta-information.
   This document also defines the procedure by which particular formats,
   called profiles, for carrying application-specific information within
   a text/directory Content-Type can be defined and registered, and the
   conventions such formats must follow. It is expected that other
   documents will be produced that define such formats for various
   applications (e.g., white pages).





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RFC 2425      MIME Content-Type for Directory Information September 1998


   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY" and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC-2119].

2.  Table of Contents

   Status of the Memo................................................ 1
   Copyright Notice.................................................. 1
   1.  Abstract...................................................... 1
   2.  Table of Contents............................................. 2
   3.  Need for a MIME Directory Type................................ 3
   4.  Overview...................................................... 4
   5.  The text/directory Content-Type............................... 4
   5.1.  MIME media type name........................................ 4
   5.2.  MIME subtype name........................................... 5
   5.3.  Required parameters......................................... 5
   5.4.  Optional parameters......................................... 5
   5.5.  Encoding considerations..................................... 5
   5.6.  Security considerations..................................... 6
   5.7.  Interoperability considerations............................. 6
   5.8.  Published specification..................................... 6
   5.8.1.  Line delimiting and folding............................... 6
   5.8.2.  ABNF content-type definition.............................. 7
   5.8.3.  Pre-defined Parameters.................................... 9
   5.8.4.  Pre-defined Value Types...................................11
   5.9.  Applications which use this media type......................14
   5.10.  Additional information.....................................14
   5.11.  Person & email address to contact for further information..14
   5.12.  Intended usage.............................................14
   5.13.  Author/Change controller...................................15
   6.  Predefined Types..............................................15
   6.1.  SOURCE Type Definition......................................15
   6.2.  NAME Type Definition........................................16
   6.3.  PROFILE Type Definition.....................................16
   6.4.  BEGIN Type Definition.......................................17
   6.5.  END Type Definition.........................................17
   7.  Use of the multipart/related Content-Type.....................18
   8. Examples.......................................................18
   8.1.  Example 1...................................................19
   8.2.  Example 2...................................................19
   8.3.  Example 3...................................................20
   8.4.  Example 4...................................................21
   9.  Registration of new profiles..................................22
   9.1.  Define the profile..........................................22
   9.2.  Post the profile definition.................................23
   9.3.  Allow a comment period......................................23
   9.4.  Submit the profile for approval.............................23
   10.  Profile Change Control.......................................23



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   11.  Registration of new types....................................24
   11.1.  Define the type............................................24
   11.2.  Post the type definition...................................25
   11.3.  Allow a comment period.....................................25
   11.4.  Submit the type for approval...............................25
   12.  Type Change Control..........................................25
   13.  Registration of new parameters...............................26
   13.1.  Define the parameter.......................................26
   13.2.  Post the parameter definition..............................27
   13.3.  Allow a comment period.....................................27
   13.4.  Submit the parameter for approval..........................27
   14.  Parameter Change Control.....................................28
   15.  Registration of new value types..............................28
   15.1.  Define the value type......................................28
   15.2.  Post the value type definition.............................29
   15.3.  Allow a comment period.....................................29
   15.4.  Submit the value type for approval.........................29
   16.  Security Considerations......................................30
   17. Acknowledgements..............................................30
   18. References....................................................30
   19.  Authors' Addresses...........................................32
   20. Full Copyright Statement......................................33

3.  Need for a MIME Directory Type

   For purposes of this document, a directory is a special-purpose
   database that contains typed information. A directory usually
   supports both read and search of the information it contains, and can
   support creation and modification of the information as well.
   Directory information is usually accessed far more often than it is
   updated.  Directories can be local or global in scope. They can be
   distributed or centralized. The information they contain can be
   replicated, with weak or strong consistency requirements.

   There are several situations in which users of Internet mail might
   wish to exchange directory information: the email analogy of a
   "business card" exchange; the conveyance of directory information to
   a user having only email access to the Internet; the provision of
   machine-parseable address information when purchasing goods or
   services over the Internet; etc.  As MIME [RFC-2045, RFC-2046] is
   used increasingly by other protocols, most notably HTTP, it can also
   be useful for these protocols to carry directory information in MIME
   format. Such a format, for example, could be used to represent URC
   (uniform resource characteristics) information about resources on the
   World Wide Web, or to provide a rudimentary directory service over
   HTTP.





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RFC 2425      MIME Content-Type for Directory Information September 1998


4.  Overview

   The scheme defined here for representing directory information in a
   MIME Content-Type has two parts. First, the text/directory Content-
   Type is defined for use in holding directory information within a
   single body part, for example name, title, or email address. In its
   simplest form, the format uses a "type:value" approach, which should
   be easily parseable by existing MIME implementations and
   understandable by users. More complicated situations can be
   represented also.  This document defines the general form the
   information in the Content-Type should have, and the procedure by
   which specific types and values (properties) for particular
   applications can be defined. The framework is general enough to
   handle information from any number of end directory services,
   including LDAP [RFC-1777, RFC-1778], WHOIS++ [RFC-1835], and X.500
   [X500].

   Directory entries can include far more than just textual information.
   Some such information (e.g., an image or sound) overlaps with
   predefined MIME Content-Types. In these cases it can be desirable to
   include the information in its well-known MIME format. This situation
   is handled by using a multipart/related Content-Type as defined in
   [RFC-2112].  The root component of this type is a text/directory body
   part specifying any in-line information, and for information
   contained in other Content-Types, the Content-IDs (in URI form) of
   those parts.

   In some applications, it can be useful to include a pointer (e.g, a
   URI) to some directory information rather than the information
   itself.  This document defines a general mechanism for accomplishing
   this.

5.  The text/directory Content-Type

   The text/directory Content-Type is used to hold basic directory
   information and URIs referencing other information, including other
   MIME body parts holding supplementary or non-textual directory
   information, such as an image or sound. It is defined as follows,
   using the MIME media type registration template from [RFC-2048].

   To: ietf-types@uninett.no
   Subject: Registration of MIME media type text/directory

5.1.  MIME media type name

   MIME media type name: text





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RFC 2425      MIME Content-Type for Directory Information September 1998


5.2.  MIME subtype name

   MIME subtype name: directory

5.3.  Required parameters

   Required parameters: charset

   The "charset" parameter is as defined in [RFC-2046] for other body
   parts.  It is used to identify the default character set used within
   the body part.

5.4.  Optional parameters

   Optional parameters: profile

   The "profile" parameter is used to convey the type(s) of entity(ies)
   to which the directory information pertains and the likely set of
   information associated with the entity(ies). It is intended only as a
   guide to applications interpreting the information contained within
   the body part. It SHOULD NOT be used to exclude or require particular
   pieces of information unless a profile definition specifically calls
   for this behavior. Unless specifically forbidden by a particular
   profile definition, a text/directory content type can contain
   arbitrary attribute/value pairs.

   The value of the "profile" parameter is defined as follows.  Profile
   names are case insensitive (i.e., the profile name "vCard" is the
   same as "VCARD" and "vcard" and "vcArD").

         profile = x-name / iana-token

         x-name = "x-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
             ; Names beginning with "x-" or "X-" are
             ; reserved for experimental use not intended for released
             ; products, or for use in bilateral agreements.

         iana-token = <a publicly-defined extension token, registered
                        with IANA, as specified in Section 9 of this
                        document>

5.5.  Encoding considerations

   The default encoding is 8bit. Otherwise, as specified by the
   Content-Transfer-Encoding header field.






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RFC 2425      MIME Content-Type for Directory Information September 1998


5.6.  Security considerations

   Directory information can be public or it can be protected from
   unauthorized access by the directory service in which it resides.
   Once the information leaves its native service, there can be no
   guarantee that the same care will be taken by all services handling
   the information.  Furthermore, this specification defines no access
   control mechanism by which information can be protected, or by which
   access control information can be conveyed.  Note that the integrity
   and privacy of a text/directory body part can be protected by
   enclosing it within an appropriate MIME-based security mechanism.

5.7.  Interoperability considerations

   In order to make sense of directory information, applications must
   share a common understanding of the types of information contained
   within the Content-Type (the directory schema).  This schema
   information is not defined in this document, but rather in companion
   documents (e.g., [MIME-VCARD]) that follow the requirements specified
   in this document, or in bilateral agreements between communicating
   parties.

5.8.  Published specification

   The text/directory Content-Type contains directory information,
   typically pertaining to a single directory entity or group of
   entities.  The content consists of one or more lines in the format
   given below.

5.8.1.  Line delimiting and folding

   Individual lines within the MIME text/directory Content Type body are
   delimited by the [RFC-822] line break, which is a CRLF sequence
   (ASCII decimal 13, followed by ASCII decimal 10). Long logical lines
   of text can be split into a multiple-physical-line representation
   using the following folding technique.

   A logical line MAY be continued on the next physical line anywhere
   between two characters by inserting a CRLF immediately followed by a
   single white space character (space, ASCII decimal 32, or horizontal
   tab, ASCII decimal 9).  At least one character must be present on the
   folded line. Any sequence of CRLF followed immediately by a single
   white space character is ignored (removed) when processing the
   content type.  For example the line:

   DESCRIPTION:This is a long description that exists on a long line.

   Can be represented as:



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RFC 2425      MIME Content-Type for Directory Information September 1998


   DESCRIPTION:This is a long description
     that exists on a long line.

   It could also be represented as:

   DESCRIPTION:This is a long descrip
    tion that exists o
    n a long line.

   The process of moving from this folded multiple-line representation
   of a type definition to its single line representation is called
   unfolding.  Unfolding is accomplished by regarding CRLF immediately
   followed by a white space character (namely HTAB ASCII decimal 9 or
   SPACE ASCII decimal 32) as equivalent to no characters at all (i.e.,
   the CRLF and single white space character are removed).

5.8.2.  ABNF content-type definition

   The following ABNF uses the notation of RFC 2234, which also defines
   CRLF, WSP, DQUOTE, VCHAR, ALPHA, and DIGIT.  After the unfolding of
   any folded lines as described above, the syntax for a line of this
   content type is as follows:

   contentline  = [group "."] name *(";" param) ":" value CRLF
      ; When parsing a content line, folded lines MUST first
      ; be unfolded according to the unfolding procedure
      ; described above.
      ; When generating a content line, lines longer than 75
      ; characters SHOULD be folded according to the folding
      ; procedure described above.

   group        = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")

   name         = x-name / iana-token

   iana-token   = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
      ; identifier registered with IANA

   x-name       = "x-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
      ; Names that begin with "x-" or "X-" are
      ; reserved for experimental use, not intended for released
      ; products, or for use in bilateral agreements.

   param        = param-name "=" param-value *("," param-value)

   param-name   = x-name / iana-token

   param-value  = ptext / quoted-string



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RFC 2425      MIME Content-Type for Directory Information September 1998


   ptext  = *SAFE-CHAR

   value = *VALUE-CHAR
         / valuespec      ; valuespec defined in section 5.8.4

   quoted-string = DQUOTE *QSAFE-CHAR DQUOTE

   NON-ASCII    = %x80-FF
      ; use restricted by charset parameter
      ; on outer MIME object (UTF-8 preferred)

   QSAFE-CHAR   = WSP / %x21 / %x23-7E / NON-ASCII
      ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE

   SAFE-CHAR    = WSP / %x21 / %x23-2B / %x2D-39 / %x3C-7E / NON-ASCII
      ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE, ";", ":", ","

   VALUE-CHAR   = WSP / VCHAR / NON-ASCII
      ; any textual character

   A line that begins with a white space character is a continuation of
   the previous line, as described above. The white space character and
   immediately preceeding CRLF should be discarded when reconstructing
   the original line. Note that this line-folding convention differs
   from that found in RFC 822, in that the sequence <CRLF><WSP> found
   anywhere in the content indicates a continued line and should be
   removed.

   Various type names and the format of the corresponding values are
   defined as specified in Section 11.  Specifications MAY impose
   ordering on the type constructs within a body part, though none is
   required by default.  The various x-name constructs are used for
   bilaterally-agreed upon type names, parameter names and parameter
   values, or for use in experimental settings.

   Type names and parameter names are case insensitive (e.g., the type
   name "fn" is the same as "FN" and "Fn"). Parameter values MAY be case
   sensitive or case insensitive, depending on their definition.

   The group construct is used to group related attributes together.
   The group name is a syntactic convention used to indicate that all
   type names prefaced with the same group name SHOULD be grouped
   together when displayed by an application. It has no other
   significance.  Implementations that do not understand or support
   grouping MAY simply strip off any text before a "." to the left of
   the type name and present the types and values as normal.





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   Each attribute defined in the text/directory body MAY have multiple
   values, if allowed in the definition of the profile in which the
   attribute is used. The general rule for encoding multi-valued items
   is to simply create a new content line for each value (including the
   type name).  However, it should be noted that some value types
   support encoding multiple values in a single content line by
   separating the values with a comma ",".  This approach has been taken
   for several of the content types defined below (date, time, integer,
   float), for space-saving reasons.

5.8.3.  Pre-defined Parameters

   The following parameters and value types are defined for general use.

         predefined-param = encodingparm
                          / valuetypeparm
                          / languageparm
                          / contextparm

         encodingparm = "encoding" "=" encodingtype

         encodingtype = "b"       ; from RFC 2047
                    / iana-token  ; registered as described in
                                  ; section 15 of this document

         valuetypeparm = "value" "=" valuetype

         valuetype = "uri"        ; genericurl from secion 5 of RFC 1738
                    / "text"
                    / "date"
                    / "time"
                    / "date-time" ; date time
                    / "integer"
                    / "boolean"
                    / "float"
                    / x-name
                    / iana-token  ; registered as described in
                                  ; section 15 of this document

         languageparm = "language" "=" Language-Tag
             ; Language-Tag is defined in section 2 of RFC 1766

         contextparm = "context" "=" context

         context = x-name
                 / iana-token





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   The "language" type parameter is used to identify data in multiple
   languages.  There is no concept of "default" language, except as
   specified by any "Content-Language" MIME header parameter that is
   present.  The value of the "language" type parameter is a language
   tag as defined in Section 2 of [RFC-1766].

   The "context" type parameter is used to identify a context (e.g., a
   protocol) used in interpreting the value. This is used, for example,
   in the "source" type, defined below.

   The "encoding" type parameter is used to specify an alternate
   encoding for a value.  If the value contains a CRLF, it must be
   encoded, since CRLF is used to separate lines in the content-type
   itself.  Currently, only the "b" encoding is supported.

   The "b" encoding can also be useful for binary values that are mixed
   with other text information in the body part (e.g., a certificate).
   Using a per-value "b" encoding in this case leaves the other
   information in a more readable form. The encoded base 64 value can be
   split across multiple physical lines in the content type by using the
   line folding technique described above.

   The Content-Transfer-Encoding header field is used to specify the
   encoding used for the body part as a whole. The "encoding" type
   parameter is used to specify an encoding for a particular value
   (e.g., a certificate).  In this case, the Content-Transfer-Encoding
   header might specify "8bit", while the one certificate value might
   specify an encoding of "b" via an "encoding=b" type parameter.

   The Content-Transfer-Encoding and the encodings of individual types
   given by the "encoding" type parameter are independent of one
   another.  When encoding a text/directory body part for transmission,
   individual type encodings are performed first, then the entire body
   part is encoded according to the Content-Transfer-Encoding.  When
   decoding a text/directory body part, the Content-Transfer-Encoding is
   decoded first, and then any individual types with an "encoding" type
   parameter are decoded.

   The "value" parameter is optional, and is used to identify the value
   type (data type) and format of the value.  The use of these
   predefined formats is encouraged even if the value parameter is not
   explicity used.  By defining a standard set of value types and their
   formats, existing parsing and processing code can be leveraged.

   Including the value type explicitly as part of each property provides
   an extra hint to keep parsing simple and support more generalized
   applications.  For example a search engine would not have to know the
   particular value types for all of the items for which it is



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   searching.  Because the value type is explicit in the definition, the
   search engine could look for dates in any item type and provide
   results that can still be interpreted.

5.8.4.  Pre-defined Value Types

   The format for values corresponding to the predefined valuetype
   specifications given above are defined.

   valuespec =  text-list
              / genericurl       ; from section 5 of RFC 1738
              / date-list
              / time-list
              / date-time-list
              / boolean
              / integer-list
              / float-list
              / iana-valuespec

   text-list = *TEXT-LIST-CHAR *("," *TEXT-LIST-CHAR)

   TEXT-LIST-CHAR = "\\" / "\," / "\n"
                  / <any VALUE-CHAR except , or \ or newline>
       ; Backslashes, newlines, and commas must be encoded.
       ; \n or \N can be used to encode a newline.

   date-list = date *("," date)

   time-list = time *("," time)

   date-time-list = date "T" time *("," date "T" time)

   boolean = "TRUE" / "FALSE"

   integer-list = integer *("," integer)

   integer = [sign] 1*DIGIT

   float-list = float *("," float)

   float = [sign] 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

   sign = "+" / "-"

   date = date-fullyear ["-"] date-month ["-"] date-mday

   date-fullyear = 4 DIGIT




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   date-month = 2 DIGIT     ;01-12

   date-mday = 2 DIGIT      ;01-28, 01-29, 01-30, 01-31
                            ;based on month/year

   time = time-hour [":"] time-minute [":"] time-second [time-secfrac]
           [time-zone]

   time-hour = 2 DIGIT      ;00-23

   time-minute = 2 DIGIT    ;00-59

   time-second = 2 DIGIT    ;00-60 (leap second)

   time-secfrac = "," 1*DIGIT

   time-zone = "Z" / time-numzone

   time-numzome = sign time-hour [":"] time-minute

   iana-valuespec = <a publicly-defined valuetype format, registered
                     with IANA, as defined in section 15 of this
                     document>

   Some specific notes on the value types and formats:

   "text": The "text" value type should be used to identify values that
   contain human-readable text. The character set and language in which
   the text is represented is controlled by the charset content-header
   and the language type parameter and content-header.

         Examples for "text":
                    this is a text value
                    this is one value,this is another
                    this is a single value\, with a comma encoded

   A formatted text line break in a text value type MUST be represented
   as the character sequence backslash (ASCII decimal 92) followed by a
   Latin small letter n (ASCII decimal 110) or a Latin capital letter N
   (ASCII decimal 78), that is "\n" or "\N".

   For example a multiple line DESCRIPTION value of:

   Mythical Manager
   Hyjinx Software Division
   BabsCo, Inc.

   could be represented as:



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   DESCRIPTION:Mythical Manager\nHyjinx Software Division\n
    BabsCo\, Inc.\n

   demonstrating the \n literal formatted line break technique, the
   CRLF-followed-by-space line folding technique, and the backslash
   escape technique.

   "uri": The "uri" value type should be used to identify values that
   are referenced by a URI (including a Content-ID URI), instead of
   encoded in-line. These value references might be used if the value is
   too large, or otherwise undesirable to include directly. The format
   for the URI is as defined in RFC 1738.

       Examples for "uri":
                  http://www.foobar.com/my/picture.jpg
                  ldap://ldap.foobar.com/cn=babs%20jensen

   "date", "time", and "date-time": Each of these value types is based
   on a subset of the definitions in ISO 8601 standard. Profiles MAY
   place further restrictions on "date" and "time" values.  Multiple
   "date" and "time" values can be specified using the comma-separated
   notation, unless restricted by a profile.

       Examples for "date":
                   1985-04-12
                   1996-08-05,1996-11-11
                   19850412

       Examples for "time":
                   10:22:00
                   102200
                   10:22:00.33
                   10:22:00.33Z
                   10:22:33,11:22:00
                   10:22:00-08:00

       Examples for "date-time":
                   1996-10-22T14:00:00Z
                   1996-08-11T12:34:56Z
                   19960811T123456Z
                   1996-10-22T14:00:00Z,1996-08-11T12:34:56Z

   "boolean": The "boolean" value type is used to express boolen values.
   These values are case insensitive.

       Examples: TRUE
                 false
                 True



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   "integer": The "integer" value type is used to express signed
   integers in decimal format. If sign is not specified, the value is
   assumed positive "+". Multiple "integer" values can be specified
   using the comma-separated notation, unless restricted by a profile.

       Examples: 1234567890
                 -1234556790
                 +1234556790,432109876

   "float": The "float" value type is used to express real numbers.  If
   sign is not specified, the value is assumed positive "+". Multiple
   "float" values can be specified using the comma-separated notation,
   unless restricted by a profile.

       Examples: 20.30
                 1000000.0000001
                 1.333,3.14

5.9.  Applications which use this media type

   Applications which use this media type: Various

5.10.  Additional information

   Additional information: None

5.11.  Person & email address to contact for further information

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   howes@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3419

5.12.  Intended usage

   Intended usage: COMMON












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5.13.  Author/Change controller

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   howes@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3419

   Mark Smith
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA
   mcs@netscape.com
   +1 415 937 3477

   Frank Dawson
   Lotus Development Corporation
   6544 Battleford Drive
   Raleigh, NC 27613-3502
   USA
   frank_dawson@lotus.com
   +1-919-676-9515

6.  Predefined Types

   The following types are generally useful regardless of the profile
   being carried and are defined below using the text/directory MIME
   type registration template defined in Section 11.1 of this document.
   These types MAY be included in any profile, unless explicitly
   forbidden in the profile definition.

6.1.  SOURCE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type SOURCE

   Type name: SOURCE

   Type purpose: To identify the source of directory information
   contained in the content type.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: uri




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   Type special notes: The SOURCE type is used to provide the means by
   which applications knowledgable in the given directory service
   protocol can obtain additional or more up-to-date information from
   the directory service. It contains a URI as defined in [RFC-1738]
   and/or other information referencing the directory entity or entities
   to which the information pertains. When directory information is
   available from more than one source, the sending entity can pick what
   it considers to be the best source, or multiple SOURCE types can be
   included. The interpretation of the value for a SOURCE type can
   depend on the setting of the CONTEXT type parameter. The value of the
   CONTEXT type parameter MUST be compatible with the value of the uri
   prefix.

   Type example:
           SOURCE;CONTEXT=LDAP:ldap://ldap.host/cn=Babs%20Jensen,
            %20o=Babsco,%20c=US

6.2.  NAME Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type NAME

   Type name: NAME

   Type purpose: To identify the displayable name of the directory
   entity to which information in the content type pertains.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: text

   Type special notes: The NAME type is used to convey the display name
   of the entity to which the directory information pertains.

   Type example:
           NAME:Babs Jensen's Contact Information

6.3.  PROFILE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type PROFILE

   Type name: PROFILE

   Type purpose: To identify the type of directory entity to which
   information in the content type pertains.

   Type encoding: 8bit



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   Type valuetype: A profile name, registered as described in Section 9
   of this document or bilaterally agreed upon as described in Section
   5.

   Type special notes: The PROFILE type is used to convey the type of
   the entity to which the directory information in the rest of the body
   part pertains. It should be the same as the "profile" header
   parameter, if present.

   Type example:
           PROFILE:vCard

6.4.  BEGIN Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type BEGIN

   Type name: BEGIN

   Type purpose: To denote the beginning of a syntactic entity within a
   text/directory content-type.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: text, containing a profile name, registered as
   described in Section 9 of this document or bilaterally-agreed upon as
   described in Section 5.

   Type special notes: The BEGIN type is used in conjunction with the
   END type to delimit a profile containing a related set of properties
   within an text/directory content-type. This construct can be used
   instead of or in addition to wrapping separate sets of information
   inside additional MIME headers. It is provided for applications that
   wish to define content that can contain multiple entities within the
   same text/directory content-type or to define content that can be
   identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   Type example:
           BEGIN:VCARD

6.5.  END Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type END

   Type name: END





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   Type purpose: To denote the end of a syntactic entity within a
   text/directory content-type.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type valuetype: text, containing a profile name, registered as
   described in Section 9 of this document or bilaterally-agreed upon as
   described in Section 5.

   Type special notes: The END type is used in conjunction with the
   BEGIN type to delimit a profile containing a related set of
   properties within an text/directory content-type.  This construct can
   be used instead of or in addition to wrapping separate sets of
   information inside additional MIME headers. It is provided for
   applications that wish to define content that can contain multiple
   entities within the same text/directory content-type or to define
   content that can be identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

   Type example:
           END: VCARD

7.  Use of the multipart/related Content-Type

   The multipart/related Content-Type can be used to hold directory
   information comprised of both text and non-text information or
   directory information that already has a natural MIME representation.
   The root body part within the multipart/related body part is
   specified as defined in [RFC-2112] by a "start" parameter, or it is
   the first body part in the absence of such a parameter.  The root
   body part must have a Content-Type of "text/directory".  This part
   holds inline information and makes reference to subsequent body parts
   holding additional text or non-text directory information via their
   Content-ID URIs as explained in Section 5.

   The body parts referred to do not have to be in any particular order,
   except as noted above for the root body part.

8.  Examples

   The following examples are for illustrative purposes only and are not
   part of the definition.










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RFC 2425      MIME Content-Type for Directory Information September 1998


8.1.  Example 1

   The first example illustrates simple use of the text/directory
   Content-Type.  Note that no "profile" parameter is given, so an
   application may not know what kind of directory entity the
   information applies to.  Note also the use of both hypothetical
   official and bilaterally agreed upon types.

      From: Whomever@wherever.com
      To: Someone@somewhere.com
      Subject: whatever
      MIME-Version: 1.0
      Message-ID: <id1@host.net>
      Content-Type: text/directory
      Content-ID: <id2@host.com>

      cn:Babs Jensen
      cn:Barbara J Jensen
      sn:Jensen
      email:babs@umich.edu
      phone:+1 313 747-4454
      x-id:1234567890

8.2.  Example 2

   The next example illustrates the use of the Quoted-Printable transfer
   encoding defined in [RFC 2045] to include non-ASCII character in some
   of the information returned, and the use of the optional "name" and
   "source" types. It also illustrates the use of an "encoding" type
   parameter to encode a certificate value in "b".  A "vCard" profile
   [MIME- VCARD] is used for the example.

Content-Type: text/directory;
        charset="iso-8859-1";
        profile="vCard"
Content-ID: <id3@host.com>
Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable

begin:VCARD
source:ldap://cn=bjorn%20Jensen, o=university%20of%20Michigan, c=US
name:Bjorn Jensen
fn:Bj=F8rn Jensen
n:Jensen;Bj=F8rn
email;type=internet:bjorn@umich.edu
tel;type=work,voice,msg:+1 313 747-4454
key;type=x509;encoding=B:dGhpcyBjb3VsZCBiZSAKbXkgY2VydGlmaWNhdGUK
end:VCARD




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8.3.  Example 3

   The next example illustrates the use of multi-valued type parameters,
   the "language" type parameter, the "value" type parameter, folding of
   long lines, the \n encoding for formatted lines, attribute grouping,
   and the inline "b" encoding.  A "vCard" profile [MIME-VCARD] is used
   for the example.

Content-Type: text/directory; profile="vcard"; charset=iso-8859-1
Content-ID: <id3@host.com>
Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable

begin:vcard
source:ldap://cn=Meister%20Berger,o=Universitaet%20Goerlitz,c=DE
name:Meister Berger
fn:Meister Berger
n:Berger;Meister
bday;value=date:1963-09-21
o:Universit=E6t G=F6rlitz
title:Mayor
title;language=de;value=text:Burgermeister
note:The Mayor of the great city of
  Goerlitz in the great country of Germany.
email;internet:mb@goerlitz.de
home.tel;type=fax,voice,msg:+49 3581 123456
home.label:Hufenshlagel 1234\n
 02828 Goerlitz\n
 Deutschland
key;type=X509;encoding=b:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQ
 AwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bmljYXRpb25zI
 ENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0ZW1zMRwwGgYDVQQD
 ExNyb290Y2EubmV0c2NhcGUuY29tMB4XDTk3MDYwNjE5NDc1OVoXDTk3MTIwMzE5NDc
 1OVowgYkxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMSYwJAYDVQQKEx1OZXRzY2FwZSBDb21tdW5pY2F0aW
 9ucyBDb3JwLjEYMBYGA1UEAxMPVGltb3RoeSBBIEhvd2VzMSEwHwYJKoZIhvcNAQkBF
 hJob3dlc0BuZXRzY2FwZS5jb20xFTATBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEBEwVob3dlczBcMA0GCSqG
 SIb3DQEBAQUAA0sAMEgCQQC0JZf6wkg8pLMXHHCUvMfL5H6zjSk4vTTXZpYyrdN2dXc
 oX49LKiOmgeJSzoiFKHtLOIboyludF90CgqcxtwKnAgMBAAGjNjA0MBEGCWCGSAGG+E
 IBAQQEAwIAoDAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBT84FToB/GV3jr3mcau+hUMbsQukjANBgkqhkiG9
 w0BAQQFAAOBgQBexv7o7mi3PLXadkmNP9LcIPmx93HGp0Kgyx1jIVMyNgsemeAwBM+M
 SlhMfcpbTrONwNjZYW8vJDSoi//yrZlVt9bJbs7MNYZVsyF1unsqaln4/vy6Uawfg8V
 UMk1U7jt8LYpo4YULU7UZHPYVUaSgVttImOHZIKi4hlPXBOhcUQ==
end:vcard









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8.4.  Example 4

   The final example illustrates the use of the multipart/related
   Content-Type to include non-textual directory data via the "uri"
   encoding to refer to other body parts within the same message, or to
   external values.  Note that no "profile" parameter is given, so an
   application may not know what kind of directory entity the
   information applies to.  Note also the use of both hypothetical
   official and bilaterally agreed upon types.

Content-Type: multipart/related;
        boundary=woof;
        type="text/directory";
        start="<id5@host.com>"
Content-ID: <id4@host.com>

--woof
Content-Type: text/directory; charset="iso-8859-1"
Content-ID: <id5@host.com>
Content-Transfer-Encoding: Quoted-Printable

source:ldap://cn=Bjorn%20Jensen,o=University%20of%20Michigan,c=US
cn:Bj=F8rn Jensen
sn:Jensen
email:bjorn@umich.edu
image;value=uri:cid:id6@host.com
image;value=uri;format=jpeg:ftp://some.host/some/path.jpg
sound;value=uri:cid:id7@host.com
phone:+1 313 747-4454

--woof
Content-Type: image/jpeg
Content-ID: <id6@host.com>

<...image data...>

--woof
Content-Type: message/external-body;
        name="myvoice.au";
        site="myhost.com";
        access-type=ANON-FTP;
        directory="pub/myname";
        mode="image"

Content-Type: audio/basic
Content-ID: <id7@host.com>

--woof--



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9.  Registration of new profiles

   This section defines procedures by which new profiles are registered
   with the IANA and made available to the Internet community. Note that
   non-IANA profiles can be used by bilateral agreement, provided the
   associated profile names follow the "X-" convention defined above.

   The procedures defined here are designed to allow public comment and
   review of new profiles, while posing only a small impediment to the
   definition of new profiles.

   Registration of a new profile is accomplished by the following steps.

9.1.  Define the profile

   A profile is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
      Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME profile XXX

      Profile name:

      Profile purpose:

      Profile types:

      Profile special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

   The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

   Profile name: The name of the profile as it will appear in the
   text/directory MIME Content-Type "profile" header parameter, or the
   predefined "profile" type name.

   Profile purpose: The purpose of the profile (e.g., to represent
   information about people, printers, documents, etc.). Give a short
   but clear description.

   Profile types: The list of types associated with the profile.  This
   list of types is to be expected but not required in the profile,
   unless otherwise noted in the profile definition.  Other types not
   mentioned in the profile definition MAY also be present.  Note that
   any new types referenced by the profile MUST be defined separately as
   described in Section 10.





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   Profile special notes: Any special notes about the profile, how it is
   to be used, etc. This section of the template can also be used to
   define an ordering on the types that appear in the Content-Type, if
   such an ordering is required.

9.2.  Post the profile definition

   The profile description must be posted to the new profile discussion
   list, ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

9.3.  Allow a comment period

   Discussion on the new profile must be allowed to take place on the
   list for a minimum of two weeks. Consensus must be reached on the
   profile before proceeding to step 4.

9.4.  Submit the profile for approval

   Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer is
   convinced consensus has been reached on the profile, the registration
   application should be submitted to the Profile Reviewer for approval.
   The Profile Reviewer is appointed by the Application Area Directors
   and can either accept or reject the profile registration. An accepted
   registration is passed on by the Profile Reviewer to the IANA for
   inclusion in the official IANA profile registry. The registration may
   be rejected for any of the following reasons. 1) Insufficient comment
   period; 2) Consensus not reached; 3) Technical deficiencies raised on
   the list or elsewhere have not been addressed. The Profile Reviewer's
   decision to reject a profile can be appealed by the proposer to the
   IESG, or the objections raised can be addressed by the proposer and
   the profile resubmitted.

10.  Profile Change Control

   Existing profiles can be changed using the same process by which they
   were registered.

         Define the change

         Post the change

         Allow a comment period

         Submit the changed profile for approval







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   Note that the original author or any other interested party can
   propose a change to an existing profile, but that such changes should
   only be proposed when there are serious omissions or errors in the
   published specification.  The Profile Reviewer can object to a change
   if it is not backwards compatible, but is not required to do so.

   Profile definitions can never be deleted from the IANA registry, but
   profiles which are no longer believed to be useful can be declared
   OBSOLETE by a change to their "intended use" field.

11.  Registration of new types

   This section defines procedures by which new types are registered
   with the IANA.  Note that non-IANA types can be used by bilateral
   agreement, provided the associated types names follow the "X-"
   convention defined above.

   The procedures defined here are designed to allow public comment and
   review of new types, while posing only a small impediment to the
   definition of new types.

   Registration of a new type is accomplished by the following steps.

11.1.  Define the type

   A type is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
      Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type XXX

      Type name:

      Type purpose:

      Type encoding:

      Type valuetype:

      Type special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

   The meaning of each field in the template is as follows.

   Type name: The name of the type, as it will appear in the body of an
   text/directory MIME Content-Type "type: value" line to the left of
   the colon ":".




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   Type purpose: The purpose of the type (e.g., to represent a name,
   postal address, IP address, etc.). Give a short but clear
   description.

   Type encoding: The default encoding a value of the type must have in
   the body of a text/directory MIME Content-Type.

   Type valuetype: The format a value of the type must have in the body
   of a text/directory MIME Content-Type. This description must be
   precise and must not violate the general encoding rules defined in
   section 5 of this document.

   Type special notes: Any special notes about the type, how it is to be
   used, etc.

11.2.  Post the type definition

   The type description must be posted to the new type discussion list,
   ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

11.3.  Allow a comment period

   Discussion on the new type must be allowed to take place on the list
   for a minimum of two weeks. Consensus must be reached on the type
   before proceeding to step 4.

11.4.  Submit the type for approval

   Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer is
   convinced consensus has been reached on the type, the registration
   application should be submitted to the Profile Reviewer for approval.
   The Profile Reviewer is appointed by the Application Area Directors
   and can either accept or reject the type registration. An accepted
   registration is passed on by the Profile Reviewer to the IANA for
   inclusion in the official IANA profile registry. The registration can
   be rejected for any of the following reasons. 1) Insufficient comment
   period; 2) Consensus not reached; 3) Technical deficiencies raised on
   the list or elsewhere have not been addressed.  The Profile
   Reviewer's decision to reject a type can be appealed by the proposer
   to the IESG, or the objections raised can be addressed by the
   proposer and the type resubmitted.










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12.  Type Change Control

   Existing types can be changed using the same process by which they
   were registered.

         Define the change

         Post the change

         Allow a comment period

         Submit the type for approval

   Note that the original author or any other interested party can
   propose a change to an existing type, but that such changes should
   only be proposed when there are serious omissions or errors in the
   published specification.  The Profile Reviewer can object to a change
   if it is not backwards compatible, but is not required to do so.

   Type definitions can never be deleted from the IANA registry, but
   types which are nolonger believed to be useful can be declared
   OBSOLETE by a change to their "intended use" field.

13.  Registration of new parameters

   This section defines procedures by which new parameters are
   registered with the IANA and made available to the Internet
   community. Note that non-IANA parameters can be used by bilateral
   agreement, provided the associated parameters names follow the "X-"
   convention defined above.

   The procedures defined here are designed to allow public comment and
   review of new parameters, while posing only a small impediment to the
   definition of new parameters.

   Registration of a new parameter is accomplished by the following
   steps.

13.1.  Define the parameter

   A parameter is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
      Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type parameter XXX

      Parameter name:

      Parameter purpose:



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      Parameter values:

      Parameter special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

   The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

   Parameter name: The name of the parameter as it will appear in the
   text/directory MIME Content-Type.

   Parameter purpose: The purpose of the parameter (e.g., to represent
   the format of an image, type of a phone number, etc.). Give a short
   but clear description. If defining a general paramemter like "format"
   or "type" keep in mind that other applications might wish to extend
   its use.

   Parameter values: The list or description of values associated with
   the parameter.

   Parameter special notes: Any special notes about the parameter, how
   it is to be used, etc.

13.2.  Post the parameter definition

   The parameter description must be posted to the new parameter
   discussion list, ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

13.3.  Allow a comment period

   Discussion on the new parameter must be allowed to take place on the
   list for a minimum of two weeks. Consensus must be reached on the
   parameter before proceeding to step 4.

13.4.  Submit the parameter for approval

   Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer is
   convinced consensus has been reached on the parameter, the
   registration application should be submitted to the Profile Reviewer
   for approval.  The Profile Reviewer is appointed by the Application
   Area Directors and can either accept or reject the parameter
   registration.  An accepted registration is passed on by the Profile
   Reviewer to the IANA for inclusion in the official IANA parameter
   registry. The registration can be rejected for any of the following
   reasons. 1) Insufficient comment period; 2) Consensus not reached; 3)
   Technical deficiencies raised on the list or elsewhere have not been
   addressed. The Profile Reviewer's decision to reject a profile can be
   appealed by the proposer to the IESG, or the objections raised can be



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   addressed by the proposer and the parameter registration resubmitted.

14.  Parameter Change Control

   Existing parameters can be changed using the same process by which
   they were registered.

         Define the change

         Post the change

         Allow a comment period

         Submit the parameter for approval

   Note that the original author or any other interested party can
   propose a change to an existing parameter, but that such changes
   should only be proposed when there are serious omissions or errors in
   the published specification.  The Profile Reviewer can object to a
   change if it is not backwards compatible, but is not required to do
   so.

   Parameter definitions can never be deleted from the IANA registry,
   but parameters which are nolonger believed to be useful can be
   declared OBSOLETE by a change to their "intended use" field.

15.  Registration of new value types

   This section defines procedures by which new value types are
   registered with the IANA and made available to the Internet
   community. Note that non-IANA value types can be used by bilateral
   agreement, provided the associated value types names follow the "X-"
   convention defined above.

   The procedures defined here are designed to allow public comment and
   review of new value types, while posing only a small impediment to
   the definition of new value types.

   Registration of a new value types is accomplished by the following
   steps.

15.1.  Define the value type

   A value type is defined by completing the following template.

      To: ietf-mime-direct@imc.org
      Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME value type XXX




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      value type name:

      value type purpose:

      value type format:

      value type special notes (optional):

      Intended usage: (one of COMMON, LIMITED USE or OBSOLETE)

   The explanation of what goes in each field in the template follows.

   value type name: The name of the value type as it will appear in the
   text/directory MIME Content-Type.

   value type purpose: The purpose of the value type.  Give a short but
   clear description.

   value type format: The definition of the format for the value,
   usually using ABNF grammar.

   value type special notes: Any special notes about the value type, how
   it is to be used, etc.

15.2.  Post the value type definition

   The value type description must be posted to the new value type
   discussion list, ietf-mime-direct@imc.org

15.3.  Allow a comment period

   Discussion on the new value type must be allowed to take place on the
   list for a minimum of two weeks.  Consensus must be reached before
   proceeding to step 4.

15.4.  Submit the value type for approval

   Once the two-week comment period has elapsed, and the proposer is
   convinced consensus has been reached on the value type, the
   registration application should be submitted to the Profile Reviewer
   for approval.  The Profile Reviewer is appointed by the Application
   Area Directors and can either accept or reject the value type
   registration.  An accepted registration should be passed on by the
   Profile Reviewer to the IANA for inclusion in the official IANA value
   type registry.  The registration can be rejected for any of the
   following reasons. 1) Insufficient comment period; 2) Consensus not
   reached; 3) Technical deficiencies raised on the list or elsewhere
   have not been addressed. The Profile Reviewer's decision to reject a



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   profile can be appealed by the proposer to the IESG, or the
   objections raised can be addressed by the proposer and the value type
   registration resubmitted.

16.  Security Considerations

   Internet mail is subject to many well known security attacks,
   including monitoring, replay, and forgery. Care should be taken by
   any directory service in allowing information to leave the scope of
   the service itself, where any access controls can no longer be
   guaranteed.  Applications should also take care to display directory
   data in a "safe" environment (e.g., PostScript-valued types).

17.  Acknowledgements

   The registration procedures defined here were shamelessly lifted from
   the MIME registration RFC.

   The many valuable comments contributed by members of the IETF ASID
   working group are gratefully acknowledged, as are the contributions
   of the Versit Consortium. Chris Newman was especially helpful in
   navigating the intricacies of ABNF lore.

18.  References

   [RFC-1777]   Yeong, W., Howes, T., and S. Kille, "Lightweight
                Directory Access Protocol", RFC 1777, March 1995.

   [RFC-1778]   Howes, T., Kille, S., Yeong, W., and C. Robbins, "The
                String Representation of Standard Attribute Syntaxes",
                RFC 1778, March 1995.

   [RFC-822]    Crocker, D., "Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet
                Text Messages", STD 11, RFC 822, August 1982.

   [RFC-2045]   Borenstein, N., and N. Freed, "Multipurpose Internet
                Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet
                Message Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [RFC-2046]   Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
                Part Two:  Media Types", RFC 2046, November 1996.

   [RFC-2048]   Freed, N., Klensin, J., and J. Postel, "Multipurpose
                Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Four: Registration
                Procedures", RFC 2048, November 1996.

   [RFC-1766]   Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of
                Languages", RFC 1766, March 1995.



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RFC 2425      MIME Content-Type for Directory Information September 1998


   [RFC-2112]   Levinson, E., "The MIME Multipart/Related Content-type",
                RFC 2112, March 1997.

   [X500]       "Information Processing Systems - Open Systems
                Interconnection - The Directory: Overview of Concepts,
                Models and Services", ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC21, International
                Standard 9594-1, 1988.

   [RFC-1835]   Deutsch, P., Schoultz, R., Faltstrom, P., and C. Weider,
                "Architecture of the WHOIS++ service", RFC 1835, August
                1995.

   [RFC-1738]   Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill, "Uniform
                Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December 1994.

   [MIME-VCARD] Dawson, F., and T. Howes, "VCard MIME Directory
                Profile", RFC 2426, September 1998.

   [VCARD]      Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard - The Electronic
                Business Card", Version 2.1,
                http://www.imc.com/pdi/vcard-21.txt, September, 1996.

   [RFC-2119]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                Requirement  Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC-2234]   Crocker, D., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
                Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.
























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19.  Authors' Addresses

   Tim Howes
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA

   Phone: +1.415.937.3419
   EMail: howes@netscape.com


   Mark Smith
   Netscape Communications Corp.
   501 East Middlefield Rd.
   Mountain View, CA 94041
   USA

   Phone: +1.415.937.3477
   EMail: mcs@netscape.com


   Frank Dawson
   Lotus Development Corporation
   6544 Battleford Drive
   Raleigh, NC 27613
   USA

   Phone: +1-919-676-9515
   EMail: frank_dawson@lotus.com





















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20.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
























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~~~

# RFC 2426 (vCard 3 pt 2)

~~~
Network Working Group                                         F. Dawson
Request for Comments: 2426                Lotus Development Corporation
Category: Standards Track                                      T. Howes
                                                Netscape Communications
                                                         September 1998


                      vCard MIME Directory Profile

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This memo defines the profile of the MIME Content-Type [MIME-DIR] for
   directory information for a white-pages person object, based on a
   vCard electronic business card. The profile definition is independent
   of any particular directory service or protocol. The profile is
   defined for representing and exchanging a variety of information
   about an individual (e.g., formatted and structured name and delivery
   addresses, email address, multiple telephone numbers, photograph,
   logo, audio clips, etc.). The directory information used by this
   profile is based on the attributes for the person object defined in
   the X.520 and X.521 directory services recommendations. The profile
   also provides the method for including a [VCARD] representation of a
   white-pages directory entry within the MIME Content-Type defined by
   the [MIME-DIR] document.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY" and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC 2119].











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Table of Contents

   Overview.........................................................3
   1. THE VCARD MIME DIRECTORY PROFILE REGISTRATION.................4
   2. MIME DIRECTORY FEATURES.......................................5
    2.1 PREDEFINED TYPE USAGE ......................................5
     2.1.1 BEGIN and END Type ......................................5
     2.1.2 NAME Type ...............................................5
     2.1.3 PROFILE Type ............................................5
     2.1.4 SOURCE Type .............................................5
    2.2 PREDEFINED TYPE PARAMETER USAGE ............................6
    2.3 PREDEFINED VALUE TYPE USAGE ................................6
    2.4 EXTENSIONS TO THE PREDEFINED VALUE TYPES ...................6
     2.4.1 BINARY ..................................................6
     2.4.2 VCARD ...................................................6
     2.4.3 PHONE-NUMBER ............................................7
     2.4.4 UTC-OFFSET ..............................................7
    2.5 STRUCTURED TYPE VALUES .....................................7
    2.6 LINE DELIMITING AND FOLDING ................................8
   3. VCARD PROFILE FEATURES........................................8
    3.1 IDENTIFICATION TYPES .......................................8
     3.1.1 FN Type Definition ......................................8
     3.1.2 N Type Definition .......................................9
     3.1.3 NICKNAME Type Definition ................................9
     3.1.4 PHOTO Type Definition ..................................10
     3.1.5 BDAY Type Definition ...................................11
    3.2 DELIVERY ADDRESSING TYPES .................................11
     3.2.1 ADR Type Definition ....................................11
     3.2.2 LABEL Type Definition ..................................13
    3.3 TELECOMMUNICATIONS ADDRESSING TYPES .......................13
     3.3.1 TEL Type Definition ....................................14
     3.3.2 EMAIL Type Definition ..................................15
     3.3.3 MAILER Type Definition .................................15
    3.4 GEOGRAPHICAL TYPES ........................................16
     3.4.1 TZ Type Definition .....................................16
     3.4.2 GEO Type Definition ....................................16
    3.5 ORGANIZATIONAL TYPES ......................................17
     3.5.1 TITLE Type Definition ..................................17
     3.5.2 ROLE Type Definition ...................................18
     3.5.3 LOGO Type Definition ...................................18
     3.5.4 AGENT Type Definition ..................................19
     3.5.5 ORG Type Definition ....................................20
    3.6 EXPLANATORY TYPES .........................................20
     3.6.1 CATEGORIES Type Definition .............................20
     3.6.2 NOTE Type Definition ...................................21
     3.6.3 PRODID Type Definition .................................21
     3.6.4 REV Type Definition ....................................22
     3.6.5 SORT-STRING Type Definition ............................22



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     3.6.6 SOUND Type Definition ..................................23
     3.6.7 UID Type Definition ....................................24
     3.6.8 URL Type Definition ....................................25
     3.6.9 VERSION Type Definition ................................25
    3.7 SECURITY TYPES ............................................25
     3.7.1 CLASS Type Definition ..................................26
     3.7.2 KEY Type Definition ....................................26
    3.8 EXTENDED TYPES ............................................27
   4. FORMAL GRAMMAR...............................................27
   5. DIFFERENCES FROM VCARD V2.1..................................37
   6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.............................................39
   7. AUTHORS' ADDRESSES...........................................39
   8. SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS......................................39
   9. REFERENCES...................................................40
   10. FULL COPYRIGHT STATEMENT....................................42

Overview

   The [MIME-DIR] document defines a MIME Content-Type for holding
   different kinds of directory information. The directory information
   can be based on any of a number of directory schemas. This document
   defines a [MIME-DIR] usage profile for conveying directory
   information based on one such schema; that of the white-pages type of
   person object.

   The schema is based on the attributes for the person object defined
   in the X.520 and X.521 directory services recommendations. The schema
   has augmented the basic attributes defined in the X.500 series
   recommendation in order to provide for an electronic representation
   of the information commonly found on a paper business card. This
   schema was first defined in the [VCARD] document. Hence, this [MIME-
   DIR] profile is referred to as the vCard MIME Directory Profile.

   A directory entry based on this usage profile can include traditional
   directory, white-pages information such as the distinguished name
   used to uniquely identify the entry, a formatted representation of
   the name used for user-interface or presentation purposes, both the
   structured and presentation form of the delivery address, various
   telephone numbers and organizational information associated with the
   entry. In addition, traditional paper business card information such
   as an image of an organizational logo or identify photograph can be
   included in this person object.

   The vCard MIME Directory Profile also provides support for
   representing other important information about the person associated
   with the directory entry. For instance, the date of birth of the
   person; an audio clip describing the pronunciation of the name
   associated with the directory entry, or some other application of the



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   digital sound; longitude and latitude geo-positioning information
   related to the person associated with the directory entry; date and
   time that the directory information was last updated; annotations
   often written on a business card; Uniform Resource Locators (URL) for
   a website; public key information. The profile also provides support
   for non-standard extensions to the schema. This provides the
   flexibility for implementations to augment the current capabilities
   of the profile in a standardized way. More information about this
   electronic business card format can be found in [VCARD].

1.  The vCard Mime Directory Profile Registration

   This profile is identified by the following [MIME-DIR] registration
   template information. Subsequent sections define the profile
   definition.

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME profile VCARD

   Profile name: VCARD

   Profile purpose: To hold person object or white-pages type of
   directory information. The person schema captured in the directory
   entries is that commonly found in an electronic business card.

   Predefined MIME Directory value specifications used: uri, date,
   date-time, float

   New value specifications: This profile places further constraints on
   the [MIME-DIR] text value specification. In addition, it adds a
   binary, phone-number, utc-offset and vcard value specifications.

   Predefined MIME Directory types used: SOURCE, NAME, PROFILE, BEGIN,
   END.

   Predefined MIME Directory parameters used: ENCODING, VALUE, CHARSET,
   LANGUAGE, CONTEXT.

   New types: FN, N, NICKNAME, PHOTO, BDAY, ADR, LABEL, TEL, EMAIL,
   MAILER, TZ, GEO, TITLE, ROLE, LOGO, AGENT, ORG, CATEGORIES, NOTE,
   PRODID, REV, SORT-STRING, SOUND, URL, UID, VERSION, CLASS, KEY

   New parameters: TYPE

   Profile special notes: The vCard object MUST contain the FN, N and
   VERSION types. The type-grouping feature of [MIME-DIR] is supported
   by this profile to group related vCard properties about a directory



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   entry. For example, vCard properties describing WORK or HOME related
   characteristics can be grouped with a unique group label.

   The profile permits the use of non-standard types (i.e., those
   identified with the prefix string "X-") as a flexible method for
   implementations to extend the functionality currently defined within
   this profile.

2.  MIME Directory Features

   The vCard MIME Directory Profile makes use of many of the features
   defined by [MIME-DIR]. The following sections either clarify or
   extend the content-type definition of [MIME-DIR].

2.1 Predefined Type Usage

   The vCard MIME Directory Profile uses the following predefined types
   from [MIME-DIR].

2.1.1 BEGIN and END Type

   The content entity MUST begin with the BEGIN type with a value of
   "VCARD". The content entity MUST end with the END type with a value
   of "VCARD".

2.1.2 NAME Type

   If the NAME type is present, then its value is the displayable,
   presentation text associated with the source for the vCard, as
   specified in the SOURCE type.

2.1.3 PROFILE Type

   If the PROFILE type is present, then its value MUST be "VCARD".

2.1.4 SOURCE Type

   If the SOURCE type is present, then its value provides information
   how to find the source for the vCard.












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2.2 Predefined Type Parameter Usage

   The vCard MIME Directory Profile uses the following predefined type
   parameters as defined by [MIME-DIR].

        - LANGUAGE

        - ENCODING

        - VALUE

2.3 Predefined VALUE Type Usage

   The predefined data type values specified in [MIME-DIR] MUST NOT be
   repeated in COMMA separated value lists except within the N,
   NICKNAME, ADR and CATEGORIES value types.

   The text value type defined in [MIME-DIR] is further restricted such
   that any SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59) in the value MUST be
   escaped with the BACKSLASH character (ASCII decimal 92).

2.4 Extensions To The Predefined VALUE Types

   The predefined data type values specified in [MIME-DIR] have been
   extended by the vCard profile to include a number of value types that
   are specific to this profile.

2.4.1 BINARY

   The "binary" value type specifies that the type value is inline,
   encoded binary data. This value type can be specified in the PHOTO,
   LOGO, SOUND, and KEY types.

   If inline encoded binary data is specified, the ENCODING type
   parameter MUST be used to specify the encoding format. The binary
   data MUST be encoded using the "B" encoding format. Long lines of
   encoded binary data SHOULD BE folded to 75 characters using the
   folding method defined in [MIME-DIR].

   The value type is defined by the following notation:

   binary = <A "B" binary encoded string as defined by [RFC 2047].>

2.4.2 VCARD

   The "vcard" value type specifies that the type value is another
   vCard. This value type can be specified in the AGENT type. The value
   type is defined by this specification. Since each of the type



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   declarations with in the vcard value type are being specified within
   a text value themselves, they MUST be terminated with the backslash
   escape sequence "\n" or "\N", instead of the normal newline character
   sequence CRLF. In addition, any COMMA character (ASCII decimal 44),
   SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59) and COLON character (ASCII
   decimal 58) MUST be escaped with the BACKSLASH character (ASCII
   decimal 92). For example, with the AGENT type a value would be
   specified as:

        AGENT:BEGIN:VCARD\nFN:Joe Friday\nTEL:+1-919-555-7878\n
         TITLE:Area Administrator\, Assistant\n EMAIL\;TYPE=INTERN\n
         ET:jfriday@host.com\nEND:VCARD\n

2.4.3 PHONE-NUMBER

   The "phone-number" value type specifies that the type value is a
   telephone number. This value type can be specified in the TEL type.
   The value type is a text value that has the special semantics of a
   telephone number as defined in [CCITT E.163] and [CCITT X.121].

2.4.4 UTC-OFFSET

   The "utc-offset" value type specifies that the type value is a signed
   offset from UTC. This value type can be specified in the TZ type.

   The value type is an offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). It
   is specified as a positive or negative difference in units of hours
   and minutes (e.g., +hh:mm). The time is specified as a 24-hour clock.
   Hour values are from 00 to 23, and minute values are from 00 to 59.
   Hour and minutes are 2-digits with high order zeroes required to
   maintain digit count. The extended format for ISO 8601 UTC offsets
   MUST be used. The extended format makes use of a colon character as a
   separator of the hour and minute text fields.

   The value is defined by the following notation:

        time-hour       = 2DIGIT        ;00-23
        time-minute     = 2DIGIT        ;00-59
        utc-offset      = ("+" / "-") time-hour ":" time-minute

2.5 Structured Type Values

   Compound type values are delimited by a field delimiter, specified by
   the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59). A SEMI-COLON in a
   component of a compound property value MUST be escaped with a
   BACKSLASH character (ASCII decimal 92).





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   Lists of values are delimited by a list delimiter, specified by the
   COMMA character (ASCII decimal 44). A COMMA character in a value MUST
   be escaped with a BACKSLASH character (ASCII decimal 92).

   This profile supports the type grouping mechanism defined in [MIME-
   DIR]. Grouping of related types is a useful technique to communicate
   common semantics concerning the properties of a vCard.

2.6 Line Delimiting and Folding

   This profile supports the same line delimiting and folding methods
   defined in [MIME-DIR]. Specifically, when parsing a content line,
   folded lines must first be unfolded according to the unfolding
   procedure described in [MIME-DIR]. After generating a content line,
   lines longer than 75 characters SHOULD be folded according to the
   folding procedure described in [MIME DIR].

   Folding is done after any content encoding of a type value. Unfolding
   is done before any decoding of a type value in a content line.

3.  vCard Profile Features

   The vCard MIME Directory Profile Type contains directory information,
   typically pertaining to a single directory entry. The information is
   described using an attribute schema that is tailored for capturing
   personal contact information. The vCard can include attributes that
   describe identification, delivery addressing, telecommunications
   addressing, geographical, organizational, general explanatory and
   security and access information about the particular object
   associated with the vCard.

3.1 Identification Types

   These types are used in the vCard profile to capture information
   associated with the identification and naming of the person or
   resource associated with the vCard.

3.1.1 FN Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type FN

   Type name:FN

   Type purpose: To specify the formatted text corresponding to the name
   of the object the vCard represents.




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   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: This type is based on the semantics of the X.520
   Common Name attribute. The property MUST be present in the vCard
   object.

   Type example:

        FN:Mr. John Q. Public\, Esq.

3.1.2 N Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type N

   Type name: N

   Type purpose: To specify the components of the name of the object the
   vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single structured text value. Each component can have
   multiple values.

   Type special note: The structured type value corresponds, in
   sequence, to the Family Name, Given Name, Additional Names, Honorific
   Prefixes, and Honorific Suffixes. The text components are separated
   by the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59). Individual text
   components can include multiple text values (e.g., multiple
   Additional Names) separated by the COMMA character (ASCII decimal
   44). This type is based on the semantics of the X.520 individual name
   attributes. The property MUST be present in the vCard object.

   Type example:

        N:Public;John;Quinlan;Mr.;Esq.

        N:Stevenson;John;Philip,Paul;Dr.;Jr.,M.D.,A.C.P.

3.1.3 NICKNAME Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type NICKNAME



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   Type name: NICKNAME

   Type purpose: To specify the text corresponding to the nickname of
   the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: One or more text values separated by a COMMA character
   (ASCII decimal 44).

   Type special note: The nickname is the descriptive name given instead
   of or in addition to the one belonging to a person, place, or thing.
   It can also be used to specify a familiar form of a proper name
   specified by the FN or N types.

   Type example:

        NICKNAME:Robbie

        NICKNAME:Jim,Jimmie

3.1.4 PHOTO Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type PHOTO

   Type name: PHOTO

   Type purpose: To specify an image or photograph information that
   annotates some aspect of the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
   parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data. If the
   value is referenced by a URI value, then the default encoding of 8bit
   is used and no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.

   Type value: A single value. The default is binary value. It can also
   be reset to uri value. The uri value can be used to specify a value
   outside of this MIME entity.

   Type special notes: The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to
   specify the graphic image format type. The TYPE parameter values MUST
   be one of the IANA registered image formats or a non-standard image
   format.






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   Type example:

        PHOTO;VALUE=uri:http://www.abc.com/pub/photos
         /jqpublic.gif


        PHOTO;ENCODING=b;TYPE=JPEG:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcN
         AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
         ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
         <...remainder of "B" encoded binary data...>

3.1.5 BDAY Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type BDAY

   Type name: BDAY

   Type purpose: To specify the birth date of the object the vCard
   represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: The default is a single date value. It can also be reset
   to a single date-time value.

   Type examples:

        BDAY:1996-04-15

        BDAY:1953-10-15T23:10:00Z

        BDAY:1987-09-27T08:30:00-06:00

3.2 Delivery Addressing Types

   These types are concerned with information related to the delivery
   addressing or label for the vCard object.

3.2.1 ADR Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type ADR

   Type name: ADR




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   Type purpose: To specify the components of the delivery address for
   the vCard object.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single structured text value, separated by the
   SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59).

   Type special notes: The structured type value consists of a sequence
   of address components. The component values MUST be specified in
   their corresponding position. The structured type value corresponds,
   in sequence, to the post office box; the extended address; the street
   address; the locality (e.g., city); the region (e.g., state or
   province); the postal code; the country name. When a component value
   is missing, the associated component separator MUST still be
   specified.

   The text components are separated by the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII
   decimal 59). Where it makes semantic sense, individual text
   components can include multiple text values (e.g., a "street"
   component with multiple lines) separated by the COMMA character
   (ASCII decimal 44).

   The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to specify the
   delivery address type. The TYPE parameter values can include "dom" to
   indicate a domestic delivery address; "intl" to indicate an
   international delivery address; "postal" to indicate a postal
   delivery address; "parcel" to indicate a parcel delivery address;
   "home" to indicate a delivery address for a residence; "work" to
   indicate delivery address for a place of work; and "pref" to indicate
   the preferred delivery address when more than one address is
   specified. These type parameter values can be specified as a
   parameter list (i.e., "TYPE=dom;TYPE=postal") or as a value list
   (i.e., "TYPE=dom,postal"). This type is based on semantics of the
   X.520 geographical and postal addressing attributes. The default is
   "TYPE=intl,postal,parcel,work". The default can be overridden to some
   other set of values by specifying one or more alternate values. For
   example, the default can be reset to "TYPE=dom,postal,work,home" to
   specify a domestic delivery address for postal delivery to a
   residence that is also used for work.

   Type example: In this example the post office box and the extended
   address are absent.

        ADR;TYPE=dom,home,postal,parcel:;;123 Main
          Street;Any Town;CA;91921-1234





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3.2.2 LABEL Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type LABEL

   Type name: LABEL

   Type purpose: To specify the formatted text corresponding to delivery
   address of the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: The type value is formatted text that can be used
   to present a delivery address label for the vCard object. The type
   can include the type parameter "TYPE" to specify delivery label type.
   The TYPE parameter values can include "dom" to indicate a domestic
   delivery label; "intl" to indicate an international delivery label;
   "postal" to indicate a postal delivery label; "parcel" to indicate a
   parcel delivery label; "home" to indicate a delivery label for a
   residence; "work" to indicate delivery label for a place of work; and
   "pref" to indicate the preferred delivery label when more than one
   label is specified. These type parameter values can be specified as a
   parameter list (i.e., "TYPE=dom;TYPE=postal") or as a value list
   (i.e., "TYPE=dom,postal"). This type is based on semantics of the
   X.520 geographical and postal addressing attributes. The default is
   "TYPE=intl,postal,parcel,work". The default can be overridden to some
   other set of values by specifying one or more alternate values. For
   example, the default can be reset to "TYPE=intl,post,parcel,home" to
   specify an international delivery label for both postal and parcel
   delivery to a residential location.

   Type example: A multi-line address label.

        LABEL;TYPE=dom,home,postal,parcel:Mr.John Q. Public\, Esq.\n
         Mail Drop: TNE QB\n123 Main Street\nAny Town\, CA  91921-1234
         \nU.S.A.

3.3 Telecommunications Addressing Types

   These types are concerned with information associated with the
   telecommunications addressing of the object the vCard represents.







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3.3.1 TEL Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type TEL

   Type name: TEL

   Type purpose: To specify the telephone number for telephony
   communication with the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single phone-number value.

   Type special notes: The value of this type is specified in a
   canonical form in order to specify an unambiguous representation of
   the globally unique telephone endpoint. This type is based on the
   X.500 Telephone Number attribute.

   The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to specify intended
   use for the telephone number. The TYPE parameter values can include:
   "home" to indicate a telephone number associated with a residence,
   "msg" to indicate the telephone number has voice messaging support,
   "work" to indicate a telephone number associated with a place of
   work, "pref" to indicate a preferred-use telephone number, "voice" to
   indicate a voice telephone number, "fax" to indicate a facsimile
   telephone number, "cell" to indicate a cellular telephone number,
   "video" to indicate a video conferencing telephone number, "pager" to
   indicate a paging device telephone number, "bbs" to indicate a
   bulletin board system telephone number, "modem" to indicate a MODEM
   connected telephone number, "car" to indicate a car-phone telephone
   number, "isdn" to indicate an ISDN service telephone number, "pcs" to
   indicate a personal communication services telephone number. The
   default type is "voice". These type parameter values can be specified
   as a parameter list (i.e., "TYPE=work;TYPE=voice") or as a value list
   (i.e., "TYPE=work,voice"). The default can be overridden to another
   set of values by specifying one or more alternate values. For
   example, the default TYPE of "voice" can be reset to a WORK and HOME,
   VOICE and FAX telephone number by the value list
   "TYPE=work,home,voice,fax".

   Type example:

        TEL;TYPE=work,voice,pref,msg:+1-213-555-1234






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3.3.2 EMAIL Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type EMAIL

   Type name: EMAIL

   Type purpose: To specify the electronic mail address for
   communication with the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to
   specify the format or preference of the electronic mail address. The
   TYPE parameter values can include: "internet" to indicate an Internet
   addressing type, "x400" to indicate a X.400 addressing type or "pref"
   to indicate a preferred-use email address when more than one is
   specified. Another IANA registered address type can also be
   specified. The default email type is "internet". A non-standard value
   can also be specified.

   Type example:

        EMAIL;TYPE=internet:jqpublic@xyz.dom1.com

        EMAIL;TYPE=internet:jdoe@isp.net

        EMAIL;TYPE=internet,pref:jane_doe@abc.com

3.3.3 MAILER Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type MAILER

   Type name: MAILER

   Type purpose: To specify the type of electronic mail software that is
   used by the individual associated with the vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.





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   Type special notes: This information can provide assistance to a
   correspondent regarding the type of data representation which can be
   used, and how they can be packaged. This property is based on the
   private MIME type X-Mailer that is generally implemented by MIME user
   agent products.

   Type example:

        MAILER:PigeonMail 2.1

3.4 Geographical Types

   These types are concerned with information associated with
   geographical positions or regions associated with the object the
   vCard represents.

3.4.1 TZ Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type TZ

   Type name: TZ

   Type purpose: To specify information related to the time zone of the
   object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: The default is a single utc-offset value. It can also be
   reset to a single text value.

   Type special notes: The type value consists of a single value.

   Type examples:

        TZ:-05:00

        TZ;VALUE=text:-05:00; EST; Raleigh/North America
        ;This example has a single value, not a structure text value.

3.4.2 GEO Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type GEO

   Type name: GEO



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   Type purpose: To specify information related to the global
   positioning of the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single structured value consisting of two float values
   separated by the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59).

   Type special notes: This type specifies information related to the
   global position of the object associated with the vCard. The value
   specifies latitude and longitude, in that order (i.e., "LAT LON"
   ordering). The longitude represents the location east and west of the
   prime meridian as a positive or negative real number, respectively.
   The latitude represents the location north and south of the equator
   as a positive or negative real number, respectively. The longitude
   and latitude values MUST be specified as decimal degrees and should
   be specified to six decimal places. This will allow for granularity
   within a meter of the geographical position. The text components are
   separated by the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59). The simple
   formula for converting degrees-minutes-seconds into decimal degrees
   is:

        decimal = degrees + minutes/60 + seconds/3600.

   Type example:

        GEO:37.386013;-122.082932

3.5 Organizational Types

   These types are concerned with information associated with
   characteristics of the organization or organizational units of the
   object the vCard represents.

3.5.1 TITLE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type TITLE

   Type name: TITLE

   Type purpose: To specify the job title, functional position or
   function of the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.



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   Type special notes: This type is based on the X.520 Title attribute.

   Type example:

        TITLE:Director\, Research and Development

3.5.2 ROLE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type ROLE

   Type name: ROLE

   Type purpose: To specify information concerning the role, occupation,
   or business category of the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: This type is based on the X.520 Business Category
   explanatory attribute. This property is included as an organizational
   type to avoid confusion with the semantics of the TITLE type and
   incorrect usage of that type when the semantics of this type is
   intended.

   Type example:

        ROLE:Programmer

3.5.3 LOGO Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type LOGO

   Type name: LOGO

   Type purpose: To specify a graphic image of a logo associated with
   the object the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
   parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data. If the
   value is referenced by a URI value, then the default encoding of 8bit
   is used and no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.





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   Type value: A single value. The default is binary value. It can also
   be reset to uri value. The uri value can be used to specify a value
   outside of this MIME entity.

   Type special notes: The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to
   specify the graphic image format type. The TYPE parameter values MUST
   be one of the IANA registered image formats or a non-standard image
   format.

   Type example:

        LOGO;VALUE=uri:http://www.abc.com/pub/logos/abccorp.jpg

        LOGO;ENCODING=b;TYPE=JPEG:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcN
         AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
         ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
         <...the remainder of "B" encoded binary data...>

3.5.4 AGENT Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type AGENT

   Type name: AGENT

   Type purpose: To specify information about another person who will
   act on behalf of the individual or resource associated with the
   vCard.

   Type encoding: 8-bit

   Type value: The default is a single vcard value. It can also be reset
   to either a single text or uri value. The text value can be used to
   specify textual information. The uri value can be used to specify
   information outside of this MIME entity.

   Type special notes: This type typically is used to specify an area
   administrator, assistant, or secretary for the individual associated
   with the vCard. A key characteristic of the Agent type is that it
   represents somebody or something that is separately addressable.

   Type example:

        AGENT;VALUE=uri:
         CID:JQPUBLIC.part3.960129T083020.xyzMail@host3.com





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        AGENT:BEGIN:VCARD\nFN:Susan Thomas\nTEL:+1-919-555-
         1234\nEMAIL\;INTERNET:sthomas@host.com\nEND:VCARD\n

3.5.5 ORG Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type ORG

   Type name: ORG

   Type purpose: To specify the organizational name and units associated
   with the vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single structured text value consisting of components
   separated the SEMI-COLON character (ASCII decimal 59).

   Type special notes: The type is based on the X.520 Organization Name
   and Organization Unit attributes. The type value is a structured type
   consisting of the organization name, followed by one or more levels
   of organizational unit names.

   Type example: A type value consisting of an organizational name,
   organizational unit #1 name and organizational unit #2 name.

        ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing

3.6 Explanatory Types

   These types are concerned with additional explanations, such as that
   related to informational notes or revisions specific to the vCard.

3.6.1 CATEGORIES Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type CATEGORIES

   Type name: CATEGORIES

   Type purpose: To specify application category information about the
   vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit





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   Type value: One or more text values separated by a COMMA character
   (ASCII decimal 44).

   Type example:

        CATEGORIES:TRAVEL AGENT

        CATEGORIES:INTERNET,IETF,INDUSTRY,INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

3.6.2 NOTE Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type NOTE

   Type name: NOTE

   Type purpose: To specify supplemental information or a comment that
   is associated with the vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: The type is based on the X.520 Description
   attribute.

   Type example:

        NOTE:This fax number is operational 0800 to 1715
          EST\, Mon-Fri.

3.6.3 PRODID Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type PRODID

   Type name: PRODID

   Type purpose: To specify the identifier for the product that created
   the vCard object.

   Type encoding: 8-bit

   Type value: A single text value.





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   Type special notes: Implementations SHOULD use a method such as that
   specified for Formal Public Identifiers in ISO 9070 to assure that
   the text value is unique.

   Type example:

        PRODID:-//ONLINE DIRECTORY//NONSGML Version 1//EN

3.6.4 REV Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type REV

   Type name: REV

   Type purpose: To specify revision information about the current
   vCard.

   Type encoding: 8-bit

   Type value: The default is a single date-time value. Can also be
   reset to a single date value.

   Type special notes: The value distinguishes the current revision of
   the information in this vCard for other renditions of the
   information.

   Type example:

        REV:1995-10-31T22:27:10Z

        REV:1997-11-15

3.6.5 SORT-STRING Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type SORT-STRING

   Type Name: SORT-STRING

   Type purpose: To specify the family name or given name text to be
   used for national-language-specific sorting of the FN and N types.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.



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   Type special notes: The sort string is used to provide family name or
   given name text that is to be used in locale- or national-language-
   specific sorting of the formatted name and structured name types.
   Without this information, sorting algorithms could incorrectly sort
   this vCard within a sequence of sorted vCards.  When this type is
   present in a vCard, then this family name or given name value is used
   for sorting the vCard.

   Type examples: For the case of family name sorting, the following
   examples define common sort string usage with the FN and N types.

        FN:Rene van der Harten
        N:van der Harten;Rene;J.;Sir;R.D.O.N.
        SORT-STRING:Harten

        FN:Robert Pau Shou Chang
        N:Pau;Shou Chang;Robert
        SORT-STRING:Pau

        FN:Osamu Koura
        N:Koura;Osamu
        SORT-STRING:Koura

        FN:Oscar del Pozo
        N:del Pozo Triscon;Oscar
        SORT-STRING:Pozo

        FN:Chistine d'Aboville
        N:d'Aboville;Christine
        SORT-STRING:Aboville

3.6.6 SOUND Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type SOUND

   Type name: SOUND

   Type purpose: To specify a digital sound content information that
   annotates some aspect of the vCard. By default this type is used to
   specify the proper pronunciation of the name type value of the vCard.

   Type encoding: The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
   parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data. If the
   value is referenced by a URI value, then the default encoding of 8bit
   is used and no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.




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   Type value: A single value. The default is binary value. It can also
   be reset to uri value. The uri value can be used to specify a value
   outside of this MIME entity.

   Type special notes: The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to
   specify the audio format type. The TYPE parameter values MUST be one
   of the IANA registered audio formats or a non-standard audio format.

   Type example:

        SOUND;TYPE=BASIC;VALUE=uri:CID:JOHNQPUBLIC.part8.
         19960229T080000.xyzMail@host1.com

        SOUND;TYPE=BASIC;ENCODING=b:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcN
         AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
         ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
         <...the remainder of "B" encoded binary data...>

3.6.7 UID Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type UID

   Type name: UID

   Type purpose: To specify a value that represents a globally unique
   identifier corresponding to the individual or resource associated
   with the vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: The type is used to uniquely identify the object
   that the vCard represents.

   The type can include the type parameter "TYPE" to specify the format
   of the identifier. The TYPE parameter value should be an IANA
   registered identifier format. The value can also be a non-standard
   format.

   Type example:

        UID:19950401-080045-40000F192713-0052






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3.6.8 URL Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type URL

   Type name: URL

   Type purpose: To specify a uniform resource locator associated with
   the object that the vCard refers to.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single uri value.

   Type example:

        URL:http://www.swbyps.restaurant.french/~chezchic.html

3.6.9 VERSION Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type VERSION

   Type name: VERSION

   Type purpose: To specify the version of the vCard specification used
   to format this vCard.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: The property MUST be present in the vCard object.
   The value MUST be "3.0" if the vCard corresponds to this
   specification.

   Type example:

        VERSION:3.0

3.7 Security Types

   These types are concerned with the security of communication pathways
   or access to the vCard.





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3.7.1 CLASS Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type CLASS

   Type name: CLASS

   Type purpose: To specify the access classification for a vCard
   object.

   Type encoding: 8bit

   Type value: A single text value.

   Type special notes: An access classification is only one component of
   the general security model for a directory service. The
   classification attribute provides a method of capturing the intent of
   the owner for general access to information described by the vCard
   object.

   Type examples:

        CLASS:PUBLIC

        CLASS:PRIVATE

        CLASS:CONFIDENTIAL

3.7.2 KEY Type Definition

   To: ietf-mime-directory@imc.org

   Subject: Registration of text/directory MIME type KEY

   Type name: KEY

   Type purpose: To specify a public key or authentication certificate
   associated with the object that the vCard represents.

   Type encoding: The encoding MUST be reset to "b" using the ENCODING
   parameter in order to specify inline, encoded binary data. If the
   value is a text value, then the default encoding of 8bit is used and
   no explicit ENCODING parameter is needed.

   Type value: A single value. The default is binary. It can also be
   reset to text value. The text value can be used to specify a text
   key.



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   Type special notes: The type can also include the type parameter TYPE
   to specify the public key or authentication certificate format. The
   parameter type should specify an IANA registered public key or
   authentication certificate format. The parameter type can also
   specify a non-standard format.

   Type example:

        KEY;ENCODING=b:MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQA
         wdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENbW11bmljYX
         Rpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
         ZW1zMRwwGgYDVQQDExNyb290Y2EubmV0c2NhcGUuY29tMB4XDTk3MDYwNj
         E5NDc1OVoXDTk3MTIwMzE5NDc1OVowgYkxCzAJBgNVBAYTAlVTMSYwJAYD
         VQQKEx1OZXRzY2FwZSBDb21tdW5pY2F0aW9ucyBDb3JwLjEYMBYGA1UEAx
         MPVGltb3RoeSBBIEhvd2VzMSEwHwYJKoZIhvcNAQkBFhJob3dlc0BuZXRz
         Y2FwZS5jb20xFTATBgoJkiaJk/IsZAEBEwVob3dlczBcMA0GCSqGSIb3DQ
         EBAQUAA0sAMEgCQQC0JZf6wkg8pLMXHHCUvMfL5H6zjSk4vTTXZpYyrdN2
         dXcoX49LKiOmgeJSzoiFKHtLOIboyludF90CgqcxtwKnAgMBAAGjNjA0MB
         EGCWCGSAGG+EIBAQQEAwIAoDAfBgNVHSMEGDAWgBT84FToB/GV3jr3mcau
         +hUMbsQukjANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQQFAAOBgQBexv7o7mi3PLXadkmNP9LcIP
         mx93HGp0Kgyx1jIVMyNgsemeAwBM+MSlhMfcpbTrONwNjZYW8vJDSoi//y
         rZlVt9bJbs7MNYZVsyF1unsqaln4/vy6Uawfg8VUMk1U7jt8LYpo4YULU7
         UZHPYVUaSgVttImOHZIKi4hlPXBOhcUQ==

3.8 Extended Types

   The types defined by this document can be extended with private types
   using the non-standard, private values mechanism defined in [RFC
   2045]. Non-standard, private types with a name starting with "X-" may
   be defined bilaterally between two cooperating agents without outside
   registration or standardization.

4.  Formal Grammar

   The following formal grammar is provided to assist developers in
   building parsers for the vCard.

   This syntax is written according to the form described in RFC 2234,
   but it references just this small subset of RFC 2234 literals:

   ;*******************************************
   ; Commonly Used Literal Definition
   ;*******************************************

   ALPHA        = %x41-5A / %x61-7A
        ; Latin Capital Letter A-Latin Capital Letter Z /
        ; Latin Small Letter a-Latin Small Letter z




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   CHAR         = %x01-7F
        ; Any C0 Controls and Basic Latin, excluding NULL from
        ; Code Charts, pages 7-6 through 7-9 in [UNICODE]

   CR           = %x0D
        ; Carriage Return

   LF           = %0A
        ; Line Feed

   CRLF         = CR LF
        ; Internet standard newline

   ;CTL         = %x00-1F / %x7F
        ; Controls. Not used, but referenced in comments.

   DIGIT        = %x30-39
        ; Digit Zero-Digit Nine

   DQUOTE       = %x22
        ; Quotation Mark

   HTAB         = %x09
        ; Horizontal Tabulation

   SP           = %x20
        ; space

   VCHAR        = %x21-7E
        ; Visible (printing) characters

   WSP          = SP / HTAB
        ; White Space

   ;*******************************************
   ; Basic vCard Definition
   ;*******************************************

   vcard_entity = 1*(vcard)

   vcard        = [group "."] "BEGIN" ":" "VCARD" 1*CRLF
                  1*(contentline)
        ;A vCard object MUST include the VERSION, FN and N types.
                  [group "."] "END" ":" "VCARD" 1*CRLF

   contentline  = [group "."] name *(";" param ) ":" value CRLF
        ; When parsing a content line, folded lines must first
        ; be unfolded according to the unfolding procedure



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        ; described above. When generating a content line, lines
        ; longer than 75 characters SHOULD be folded according to
        ; the folding procedure described in [MIME DIR].

   group        = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")

   name         = iana-token / x-name
        ; Parsing of the param and value is
        ; based on the "name" or type identifier
        ; as defined in ABNF sections below

   iana-token   = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
        ; vCard type or parameter identifier registered with IANA

   x-name       = "X-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
        ; Reserved for non-standard use

   param        = param-name "=" param-value *("," param-value)

   param-name   = iana-token / x-name

   param-value  = ptext / quoted-string

   ptext        = *SAFE-CHAR

   value        = *VALUE-CHAR

   quoted-string = DQUOTE QSAFE-CHAR DQUOTE

   NON-ASCII    = %x80-FF
        ; Use is restricted by CHARSET parameter
        ; on outer MIME object (UTF-8 preferred)

   QSAFE-CHAR   = WSP / %x21 / %x23-7E / NON-ASCII
        ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE

   SAFE-CHAR    = WSP / %x21 / %x23-2B / %x2D-39 / %x3C-7E / NON-ASCII
        ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE, ";", ":", ","

   VALUE-CHAR   = WSP / VCHAR / NON-ASCII
        ; Any textual character

   ;*******************************************
   ; vCard Type Definition
   ;
   ; Provides type-specific definitions for how the
   ; "value" and "param" are defined.
   ;*******************************************



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   ;For name="NAME"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="PROFILE"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = text-value
        ; Value MUST be the case insensitive value "VCARD

   ;For name="SOURCE"
   param        = source-param
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = uri

   source-param = ("VALUE" "=" "uri")
                / ("CONTEXT" "=" "word")
        ; Parameter value specifies the protocol context
        ; for the uri value.
                / (x-name "=" *SAFE-CHAR)

   ;For name="FN"
   ;This type MUST be included in a vCard object.
   param        = text-param
        ; Text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="N"
   ;This type MUST be included in a vCard object.

   param        = text-param
        ; Text parameters allowed

   value        = n-value

   n-value      = 0*4(text-value *("," text-value) ";")
                  text-value *("," text-value)
        ; Family; Given; Middle; Prefix; Suffix.
        ; Example: Public;John;Quincy,Adams;Reverend Dr. III

   ;For name="NICKNAME"
   param        = text-param
        ; Text parameters allowed



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   value        = text-list

   ;For name="PHOTO"
   param        = img-inline-param
        ; Only image parameters allowed

   param        =/ img-refer-param
        ; Only image parameters allowed

   value        = img-inline-value
        ; Value and parameter MUST match

   value        =/ img-refer-value
        ; Value and parameter MUST match

   ;For name="BDAY"
   param        = ("VALUE" "=" "date")
        ; Only value parameter allowed

   param        =/ ("VALUE" "=" "date-time")
        ; Only value parameter allowed

   value        = date-value
        ; Value MUST match value type

   value        =/ date-time-value
        ; Value MUST match value type

   ;For name="ADR"
   param        = adr-param / text-param
        ; Only adr and text parameters allowed

   value        = adr-value

   ;For name="LABEL"
   param        = adr-param / text-param
        ; Only adr and text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="TEL"
   param        = tel-param
        ; Only tel parameters allowed

   value        = phone-number-value

   tel-param    = "TYPE" "=" tel-type *("," tel-type)




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   tel-type     = "HOME" / "WORK" / "PREF" / "VOICE" / "FAX" / "MSG"
                / "CELL" / "PAGER" / "BBS" / "MODEM" / "CAR" / "ISDN"
                / "VIDEO" / "PCS" / iana-token / x-name
        ; Values are case insensitive

   ;For name="EMAIL"
   param        = email-param
        ; Only email parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   email-param  = "TYPE" "=" email-type ["," "PREF"]
        ; Value is case insensitive

   email-type   = "INTERNET" / "X400" / iana-token / "X-" word
        ; Values are case insensitive

   ;For name="MAILER"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="TZ"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = utc-offset-value

   ;For name="GEO"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = float-value ";" float-value

   ;For name="TITLE"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="ROLE"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="LOGO"



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   param        = img-inline-param / img-refer-param
        ; Only image parameters allowed

   value        = img-inline-value / img-refer-value
        ; Value and parameter MUST match

   ;For name="AGENT"
   param        = agent-inline-param

   param        =/ agent-refer-param

   value        = agent-inline-value
        ; Value and parameter MUST match

   value        =/ agent-refer-value
        ; Value and parameter MUST match

   agent-inline-param = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   agent-refer-param = "VALUE" "=" "uri"
        ; Only value parameter allowed

   agent-inline-value = text-value
        ; Value MUST be a valid vCard object

   agent-refer-value = uri
        ; URI MUST refer to image content of given type

   ;For name="ORG"

   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = org-value

   org-value    = *(text-value ";") text-value
        ; First is Organization Name, remainder are Organization Units.

   ;For name="CATEGORIES"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = text-list

   ;For name="NOTE"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed



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   value        = text-value

   ;For name="PRODID"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="REV"
   param        = ["VALUE" =" "date-time"]
        ; Only value parameters allowed. Values are case insensitive.

   param        =/ "VALUE" =" "date"
        ; Only value parameters allowed. Values are case insensitive.

   value        = date-time-value

   value        =/ date-value

   ;For name="SORT-STRING"
   param        = text-param
        ; Only text parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="SOUND"
   param        = snd-inline-param
        ; Only sound parameters allowed

   param        =/ snd-refer-param
        ; Only sound parameters allowed

   value        = snd-line-value
        ; Value MUST match value type

   value        =/ snd-refer-value
        ; Value MUST match value type

   snd-inline-value     = binary-value CRLF
        ; Value MUST be "b" encoded audio content

   snd-inline-param     = ("VALUE" "=" "binary"])
                        / ("ENCODING" "=" "b")
                        / ("TYPE" "=" *SAFE-CHAR)
        ; Value MUST be an IANA registered audio type

   snd-refer-value      = uri
        ; URI MUST refer to audio content of given type



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   snd-refer-param      = ("VALUE" "=" "uri")
                        / ("TYPE" "=" word)
        ; Value MUST be an IANA registered audio type

   ;For name="UID"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;For name="URL"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = uri

   ;For name="VERSION"
   ;This type MUST be included in a vCard object.
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = text-value
        ; Value MUST be "3.0"

   ;For name="CLASS"
   param        = ""
        ; No parameters allowed

   value        = "PUBLIC" / "PRIVATE" / "CONFIDENTIAL"
                / iana-token / x-name
        ; Value are case insensitive

   ;For name="KEY"
   param        = key-txt-param
        ; Only value and type parameters allowed

   param        =/ key-bin-param
        ; Only value and type parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   value        =/ binary-value

   key-txt-param = "TYPE" "=" keytype

   key-bin-param = ("TYPE" "=" keytype)
                 / ("ENCODING" "=" "b")
        ; Value MUST be a "b" encoded key or certificate



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   keytype      = "X509" / "PGP" / iana-token / x-name
        ; Values are case insensitive

   ;For name="X-" non-standard type
   param        = text-param / (x-name "=" param-value)
        ; Only text or non-standard parameters allowed

   value        = text-value

   ;*******************************************
   ; vCard Commonly Used Parameter Definition
   ;*******************************************

   text-param   = ("VALUE" "=" "ptext")
                / ("LANGUAGE" "=" langval)
                / (x-name "=" param-value)

   langval      = <a language string as defined in RFC 1766>

   img-inline-value     = binary-value
        ;Value MUST be "b" encoded image content

   img-inline-param

   img-inline-param     = ("VALUE" "=" "binary")
                        / ("ENCODING" "=" "b")
                        / ("TYPE" "=" param-value
        ;TYPE value MUST be an IANA registered image type

   img-refer-value = uri
        ;URI MUST refer to image content of given type

   img-refer-param      = ("VALUE" "=" "uri")
                        / ("TYPE" "=" param-value)
        ;TYPE value MUST be an IANA registered image type

   adr-param    = ("TYPE" "=" adr-type *("," adr-type))
                / (text-param)

   adr-type     = "dom" / "intl" / "postal" / "parcel" / "home"
                / "work" / "pref" / iana-type / x-name

   adr-value    = 0*6(text-value ";") text-value
        ; PO Box, Extended Address, Street, Locality, Region, Postal
        ; Code, Country Name






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   ;*******************************************
   ; vCard Type Value Definition
   ;*******************************************

   text-value-list      = 1*text-value *("," 1*text-value)

   text-value   = *(SAFE-CHAR / ":" / DQUOTE / ESCAPED-CHAR)

   ESCAPED-CHAR = "\\" / "\;" / "\," / "\n" / "\N")
        ; \\ encodes \, \n or \N encodes newline
        ; \; encodes ;, \, encodes ,

   binary-value = <A "b" encoded text value as defined in [RFC 2047]>

   date-value   = <A single date value as defined in [MIME-DIR]>

   time-value   = <A single time value as defined in [MIME-DIR]>

   date-time-value = <A single date-time value as defined in [MIME-DIR]

   float-value  = <A single float value as defined in [MIME-DIR]>

   phone-number-value = <A single text  value as defined in [CCITT
                         E.163] and [CCITT X.121]>

   uri-value    = <A uri value as defined in [MIME-DIR]>

   utc-offset-value = ("+" / "-") time-hour ":" time-minute
   time-hour    = 2DIGIT                ;00-23
   time-minute  = 2DIGIT                ;00-59

5.  Differences From vCard v2.1

   This specification has been reviewed by the IETF community. The
   review process introduced a number of differences from the [VCARD]
   version 2.1. These differences require that vCard objects conforming
   to this specification have a different version number than a vCard
   conforming to [VCARD]. The differences include the following:

        . The QUOTED-PRINTABLE inline encoding has been eliminated.
          Only the "B" encoding of [RFC 2047] is an allowed value for
          the ENCODING parameter.

        . The method for specifying CRLF character sequences in text
          type values has been changed. The CRLF character sequence in
          a text type value is specified with the backslash character
          sequence "\n" or "\N".




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        . Any COMMA or SEMICOLON in a text type value must be backslash
          escaped.

        . VERSION value corresponding to this specification MUST be
          "3.0".

        . The [MIME-DIR] predefined types of SOURCE, NAME and PROFILE
          are allowed.

        . The [MIME-DIR] VALUE type parameter for value data typing is
          allowed. In addition, there are extensions made to these type
          values for additional value types used in this specification.

        . The [VCARD] CHARSET type parameter has been eliminated.
          Character set can only be specified on the CHARSET parameter
          on the Content-Type MIME header field.

        . The [VCARD] support for non-significant WSP character has
          been eliminated.

        . The "TYPE=" prefix to parameter values is required. In
          [VCARD] this was optional.

        . LOGO, PHOTO and SOUND multimedia formats MUST be either IANA
          registered types or non-standard types.

        . Inline binary content must be "B" encoded and folded. A blank
          line after the encoded binary content is no longer required.

        . TEL values can be identified as personal communication
          services telephone numbers with the PCS type parameter value.

        . The CATEGORIES, CLASS, NICKNAME, PRODID and SORT-STRING types
          have been added.

        . The VERSION, N and FN types MUST be specified in a vCard.
          This identifies the version of the specification that the
          object was formatted to. It also assures that every vCard
          will include both a structured and formatted name that can be
          used to identify the object.











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6.  Acknowledgements

   The many valuable comments contributed by members of the IETF ASID
   working group are gratefully acknowledged, as are the contributions
   by Roland Alden, Stephen Bartlett, Alec Dun, Patrik Faltstrom, Daniel
   Gurney, Bruce Johnston, Daniel Klaussen, Pete Miller, Keith Moore,
   Vinod Seraphin, Michelle Watkins. Chris Newman was especially helpful
   in navigating the intricacies of ABNF lore.

7.  Authors' Addresses

   BEGIN:vCard
   VERSION:3.0
   FN:Frank Dawson
   ORG:Lotus Development Corporation
   ADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;;6544 Battleford Drive
    ;Raleigh;NC;27613-3502;U.S.A.
   TEL;TYPE=VOICE,MSG,WORK:+1-919-676-9515
   TEL;TYPE=FAX,WORK:+1-919-676-9564
   EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET,PREF:Frank_Dawson@Lotus.com
   EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET:fdawson@earthlink.net
   URL:http://home.earthlink.net/~fdawson
   END:vCard


   BEGIN:vCard
   VERSION:3.0
   FN:Tim Howes
   ORG:Netscape Communications Corp.
   ADR;TYPE=WORK:;;501 E. Middlefield Rd.;Mountain View;
    CA; 94043;U.S.A.
   TEL;TYPE=VOICE,MSG,WORK:+1-415-937-3419
   TEL;TYPE=FAX,WORK:+1-415-528-4164
   EMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET:howes@netscape.com
   END:vCard

8.  Security Considerations

   vCards can carry cryptographic keys or certificates, as described in
   Section 3.7.2.

   Section 3.7.1 specifies a desired security classification policy for
   a particular vCard. That policy is not enforced in any way.

   The vCard objects have no inherent authentication or privacy, but can
   easily be carried by any security mechanism that transfers MIME
   objects with authentication or privacy. In cases where threats of
   "spoofed" vCard information is a concern, the vCard SHOULD BE



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   transported using one of these secure mechanisms.

   The information in a vCard may become out of date. In cases where the
   vitality of data is important to an originator of a vCard, the "URL"
   type described in section 3.6.8 SHOULD BE specified. In addition, the
   "REV" type described in section 3.6.4 can be specified to indicate
   the last time that the vCard data was updated.

9.  References

   [ISO 8601]    ISO 8601:1988 - Data elements and interchange formats -
                 Information interchange - Representation of dates and
                 times - The International Organization for
                 Standardization, June, 1988.

   [ISO 8601 TC] ISO 8601, Technical Corrigendum 1 - Data elements and
                 interchange formats - Information interchange -
                 Representation of dates and times - The International
                 Organization for Standardization, May, 1991.

   [ISO 9070]    ISO 9070, Information Processing - SGML support
                 facilities - Registration Procedures for Public Text
                 Owner Identifiers, April, 1991.

   [CCITT E.163] Recommendation E.163 - Numbering Plan for The
                 International Telephone Service, CCITT Blue Book,
                 Fascicle II.2, pp.  128-134, November, 1988.

   [CCITT X.121] Recommendation X.121 - International Numbering Plan for
                 Public Data Networks, CCITT Blue Book, Fascicle VIII.3,
                 pp. 317-332, November, 1988.

   [CCITT X.520] Recommendation X.520 - The Directory - Selected
                 Attribute Types, November 1988.

   [CCITT X.521] Recommendation X.521 - The Directory - Selected Object
                 Classes, November 1988.

   [MIME-DIR]    Howes, T., Smith, M., and F. Dawson, "A MIME Content-
                 Type for Directory Information", RFC 2425, September
                 1998.

   [RFC 1738]    Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L., and M. McCahill,
                 "Uniform Resource Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December
                 1994.

   [RFC 1766]    Alvestrand, H., "Tags for the Identification of
                 Languages", RFC 1766, March 1995.



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   [RFC 1872]    Levinson, E., "The MIME Multipart/Related Content-
                 type", RFC 1872, December 1995.

   [RFC 2045]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
                 Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part One: Format of Internet
                 Message Bodies", RFC 2045, November 1996.

   [RFC 2046]    Freed, N., and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet
                 Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Two: Media Types", RFC
                 2046, November 1996.

   [RFC 2047]    Moore, K., "Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
                 (MIME) - Part Three: Message Header Extensions for
                 Non-ASCII Text", RFC 2047, November 1996.

   [RFC 2048]    Freed, N., Klensin, J., and J. Postel, "Multipurpose
                 Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) - Part Four:
                 Registration Procedures", RFC 2048, January 1997.

   [RFC 2119]    Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
                 Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC 2234]    Crocker, D., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
                 Specifications: ABNF", RFC 2234, November 1997.

   [UNICODE]     "The Unicode Standard - Version 2.0", The Unicode
                 Consortium, July 1996.

   [VCARD]       Internet Mail Consortium, "vCard - The Electronic
                 Business Card Version 2.1",
                 http://www.imc.org/pdi/vcard-21.txt, September 18,
                 1996.



















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10.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
   BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
   HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
   MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
























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~~~

# RFC 2445 (iCalendar)

~~~
Network Working Group                                         F. Dawson
Request for Comments: 2445                                        Lotus
Category: Standards Track                                  D. Stenerson
                                                              Microsoft
                                                          November 1998


     Internet Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object Specification
                              (iCalendar)

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1998).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   There is a clear need to provide and deploy interoperable calendaring
   and scheduling services for the Internet. Current group scheduling
   and Personal Information Management (PIM) products are being extended
   for use across the Internet, today, in proprietary ways. This memo
   has been defined to provide the definition of a common format for
   openly exchanging calendaring and scheduling information across the
   Internet.

   This memo is formatted as a registration for a MIME media type per
   [RFC 2048]. However, the format in this memo is equally applicable
   for use outside of a MIME message content type.

   The proposed media type value is 'text/calendar'. This string would
   label a media type containing calendaring and scheduling information
   encoded as text characters formatted in a manner outlined below.

   This MIME media type provides a standard content type for capturing
   calendar event, to-do and journal entry information. It also can be
   used to convey free/busy time information. The content type is
   suitable as a MIME message entity that can be transferred over MIME
   based email systems, using HTTP or some other Internet transport. In






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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


   addition, the content type is useful as an object for interactions
   between desktop applications using the operating system clipboard,
   drag/drop or file systems capabilities.

   This memo is based on the earlier work of the vCalendar specification
   for the exchange of personal calendaring and scheduling information.
   In order to avoid confusion with this referenced work, this memo is
   to be known as the iCalendar specification.

   This memo defines the format for specifying iCalendar object methods.
   An iCalendar object method is a set of usage constraints for the
   iCalendar object. For example, these methods might define scheduling
   messages that request an event be scheduled, reply to an event
   request, send a cancellation notice for an event, modify or replace
   the definition of an event, provide a counter proposal for an
   original event request, delegate an event request to another
   individual, request free or busy time, reply to a free or busy time
   request, or provide similar scheduling messages for a to-do or
   journal entry calendar component. The iCalendar Transport-indendent
   Interoperability Protocol (iTIP) defined in [ITIP] is one such
   scheduling protocol.

Table of Contents

   1 Introduction.....................................................5
   2 Basic Grammar and Conventions....................................6
    2.1 Formatting Conventions .......................................7
    2.2 Related Memos ................................................8
    2.3 International Considerations .................................8
   3 Registration Information.........................................8
    3.1 Content Type .................................................8
    3.2 Parameters ...................................................9
    3.3 Content Header Fields .......................................10
    3.4 Encoding Considerations .....................................10
    3.5 Security Considerations .....................................10
    3.6 Interoperability Considerations .............................11
    3.7 Applications Which Use This Media Type ......................11
    3.8 Additional Information ......................................11
    3.9 Magic Numbers ...............................................11
    3.10 File Extensions ............................................11
    3.11 Contact for Further Information: ...........................12
    3.12 Intended Usage .............................................12
    3.13 Authors/Change Controllers .................................12
   4 iCalendar Object Specification..................................13
    4.1 Content Lines ...............................................13
     4.1.1 List and Field Separators ................................16
     4.1.2 Multiple Values ..........................................16
     4.1.3 Binary Content ...........................................16



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     4.1.4 Character Set ............................................17
    4.2 Property Parameters .........................................17
     4.2.1 Alternate Text Representation ............................18
     4.2.2 Common Name ..............................................19
     4.2.3 Calendar User Type .......................................20
     4.2.4 Delegators ...............................................20
     4.2.5 Delegatees ...............................................21
     4.2.6 Directory Entry Reference ................................21
     4.2.7 Inline Encoding ..........................................22
     4.2.8 Format Type ..............................................23
     4.2.9 Free/Busy Time Type ......................................23
     4.2.10 Language ................................................24
     4.2.11 Group or List Membership ................................25
     4.2.12 Participation Status ....................................25
     4.2.13 Recurrence Identifier Range .............................27
     4.2.14 Alarm Trigger Relationship ..............................27
     4.2.15 Relationship Type .......................................28
     4.2.16 Participation Role ......................................29
     4.2.17 RSVP Expectation ........................................29
     4.2.18 Sent By .................................................30
     4.2.19 Time Zone Identifier ....................................30
     4.2.20 Value Data Types ........................................32
    4.3 Property Value Data Types ...................................32
     4.3.1 Binary ...................................................33
     4.3.2 Boolean ..................................................33
     4.3.3 Calendar User Address ....................................34
     4.3.4 Date .....................................................34
     4.3.5 Date-Time ................................................35
     4.3.6 Duration .................................................37
     4.3.7 Float ....................................................38
     4.3.8 Integer ..................................................38
     4.3.9 Period of Time ...........................................39
     4.3.10 Recurrence Rule .........................................40
     4.3.11 Text ....................................................45
     4.3.12 Time ....................................................47
     4.3.13 URI .....................................................49
     4.3.14 UTC Offset ..............................................49
    4.4 iCalendar Object ............................................50
    4.5 Property ....................................................51
    4.6 Calendar Components .........................................51
     4.6.1 Event Component ..........................................52
     4.6.2 To-do Component ..........................................55
     4.6.3 Journal Component ........................................56
     4.6.4 Free/Busy Component ......................................58
     4.6.5 Time Zone Component ......................................60
     4.6.6 Alarm Component ..........................................67
    4.7 Calendar Properties .........................................73
     4.7.1 Calendar Scale ...........................................73



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     4.7.2 Method ...................................................74
     4.7.3 Product Identifier .......................................75
     4.7.4 Version ..................................................76
    4.8 Component Properties ........................................77
     4.8.1 Descriptive Component Properties .........................77
       4.8.1.1 Attachment ...........................................77
       4.8.1.2 Categories ...........................................78
       4.8.1.3 Classification .......................................79
       4.8.1.4 Comment ..............................................80
       4.8.1.5 Description ..........................................81
       4.8.1.6 Geographic Position ..................................82
       4.8.1.7 Location .............................................84
       4.8.1.8 Percent Complete .....................................85
       4.8.1.9 Priority .............................................85
       4.8.1.10 Resources ...........................................87
       4.8.1.11 Status ..............................................88
       4.8.1.12 Summary .............................................89
     4.8.2 Date and Time Component Properties .......................90
       4.8.2.1 Date/Time Completed ..................................90
       4.8.2.2 Date/Time End ........................................91
       4.8.2.3 Date/Time Due ........................................92
       4.8.2.4 Date/Time Start ......................................93
       4.8.2.5 Duration .............................................94
       4.8.2.6 Free/Busy Time .......................................95
       4.8.2.7 Time Transparency ....................................96
     4.8.3 Time Zone Component Properties ...........................97
       4.8.3.1 Time Zone Identifier .................................97
       4.8.3.2 Time Zone Name .......................................98
       4.8.3.3 Time Zone Offset From ................................99
       4.8.3.4 Time Zone Offset To .................................100
       4.8.3.5 Time Zone URL .......................................101
     4.8.4 Relationship Component Properties .......................102
       4.8.4.1 Attendee ............................................102
       4.8.4.2 Contact .............................................104
       4.8.4.3 Organizer ...........................................106
       4.8.4.4 Recurrence ID .......................................107
       4.8.4.5 Related To ..........................................109
       4.8.4.6 Uniform Resource Locator ............................110
       4.8.4.7 Unique Identifier ...................................111
     4.8.5 Recurrence Component Properties .........................112
       4.8.5.1 Exception Date/Times ................................112
       4.8.5.2 Exception Rule ......................................114
       4.8.5.3 Recurrence Date/Times ...............................115
       4.8.5.4 Recurrence Rule .....................................117
     4.8.6 Alarm Component Properties ..............................126
       4.8.6.1 Action ..............................................126
       4.8.6.2 Repeat Count ........................................126
       4.8.6.3 Trigger .............................................127



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     4.8.7 Change Management Component Properties ..................129
       4.8.7.1 Date/Time Created ...................................129
       4.8.7.2 Date/Time Stamp .....................................130
       4.8.7.3 Last Modified .......................................131
       4.8.7.4 Sequence Number .....................................131
     4.8.8 Miscellaneous Component Properties ......................133
       4.8.8.1 Non-standard Properties .............................133
       4.8.8.2 Request Status ......................................134
   5 iCalendar Object Examples......................................136
   6 Recommended Practices..........................................140
   7 Registration of Content Type Elements..........................141
    7.1 Registration of New and Modified iCalendar Object Methods ..141
    7.2 Registration of New Properties .............................141
     7.2.1 Define the property .....................................142
     7.2.2 Post the Property definition ............................143
     7.2.3 Allow a comment period ..................................143
     7.2.4 Submit the property for approval ........................143
    7.3 Property Change Control ....................................143
   8 References.....................................................144
   9 Acknowledgments................................................145
   10 Authors' and Chairs' Addresses................................146
   11 Full Copyright Statement......................................148

1 Introduction

   The use of calendaring and scheduling has grown considerably in the
   last decade. Enterprise and inter-enterprise business has become
   dependent on rapid scheduling of events and actions using this
   information technology. However, the longer term growth of
   calendaring and scheduling, is currently limited by the lack of
   Internet standards for the message content types that are central to
   these knowledgeware applications. This memo is intended to progress
   the level of interoperability possible between dissimilar calendaring
   and scheduling applications. This memo defines a MIME content type
   for exchanging electronic calendaring and scheduling information. The
   Internet Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object Specification, or
   iCalendar, allows for the capture and exchange of information
   normally stored within a calendaring and scheduling application; such
   as a Personal Information Manager (PIM) or a Group Scheduling
   product.

   The iCalendar format is suitable as an exchange format between
   applications or systems. The format is defined in terms of a MIME
   content type. This will enable the object to be exchanged using
   several transports, including but not limited to SMTP, HTTP, a file
   system, desktop interactive protocols such as the use of a memory-
   based clipboard or drag/drop interactions, point-to-point
   asynchronous communication, wired-network transport, or some form of



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   unwired transport such as infrared might also be used.

   The memo also provides for the definition of iCalendar object methods
   that will map this content type to a set of messages for supporting
   calendaring and scheduling operations such as requesting, replying
   to, modifying, and canceling meetings or appointments, to-dos and
   journal entries. The iCalendar object methods can be used to define
   other calendaring and scheduling operations such a requesting for and
   replying with free/busy time data. Such a scheduling protocol is
   defined in the iCalendar Transport-independent Interoperability
   Protocol (iTIP) defined in [ITIP].

   The memo also includes a formal grammar for the content type based on
   the Internet ABNF defined in [RFC 2234]. This ABNF is required for
   the implementation of parsers and to serve as the definitive
   reference when ambiguities or questions arise in interpreting the
   descriptive prose definition of the memo.

2 Basic Grammar and Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY" and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interoperated as described in
   [RFC 2119].

   This memo makes use of both a descriptive prose and a more formal
   notation for defining the calendaring and scheduling format.

   The notation used in this memo is the ABNF notation of [RFC 2234].
   Readers intending on implementing this format defined in this memo
   should be familiar with this notation in order to properly interpret
   the specifications of this memo.

   All numeric and hexadecimal values used in this memo are given in
   decimal notation.

   All names of properties, property parameters, enumerated property
   values and property parameter values are case-insensitive. However,
   all other property values are case-sensitive, unless otherwise
   stated.

        Note: All indented editorial notes, such as this one, are
        intended to provide the reader with additional information. The
        information is not essential to the building of an
        implementation conformant with this memo. The information is
        provided to highlight a particular feature or characteristic of
        the memo.




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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


   The format for the iCalendar object is based on the syntax of the
   [RFC 2425] content type. While the iCalendar object is not a profile
   of the [RFC 2425] content type, it does reuse a number of the
   elements from the [RFC 2425] specification.

2.1 Formatting Conventions

   The mechanisms defined in this memo are defined in prose. Many of the
   terms used to describe these have common usage that is different than
   the standards usage of this memo. In order to reference within this
   memo elements of the calendaring and scheduling model, core object
   (this memo) or interoperability protocol [ITIP] some formatting
   conventions have been used. Calendaring and scheduling roles are
   referred to in quoted-strings of text with the first character of
   each word in upper case. For example, "Organizer" refers to a role of
   a "Calendar User" within the scheduling protocol defined by [ITIP].
   Calendar components defined by this memo are referred to with
   capitalized, quoted-strings of text. All calendar components start
   with the letter "V". For example, "VEVENT" refers to the event
   calendar component, "VTODO" refers to the to-do calendar component
   and "VJOURNAL" refers to the daily journal calendar component.
   Scheduling methods defined by [ITIP] are referred to with
   capitalized, quoted-strings of text. For example, "REQUEST" refers to
   the method for requesting a scheduling calendar component be created
   or modified, "REPLY" refers to the method a recipient of a request
   uses to update their status with the "Organizer" of the calendar
   component.

   The properties defined by this memo are referred to with capitalized,
   quoted-strings of text, followed by the word "property". For example,
   "ATTENDEE" property refers to the iCalendar property used to convey
   the calendar address of a calendar user. Property parameters defined
   by this memo are referred to with lowercase, quoted-strings of text,
   followed by the word "parameter". For example, "value" parameter
   refers to the iCalendar property parameter used to override the
   default data type for a property value. Enumerated values defined by
   this memo are referred to with capitalized text, either alone or
   followed by the word "value". For example, the "MINUTELY" value can
   be used with the "FREQ" component of the "RECUR" data type to specify
   repeating components based on an interval of one minute or more.











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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


2.2 Related Memos

   Implementers will need to be familiar with several other memos that,
   along with this memo, form a framework for Internet calendaring and
   scheduling standards. This memo, [ICAL], specifies a core
   specification of objects, data types, properties and property
   parameters.

   [ITIP] - specifies an interoperability protocol for scheduling
   between different implementations;

   [IMIP] specifies an Internet email binding for [ITIP].

   This memo does not attempt to repeat the specification of concepts or
   definitions from these other memos. Where possible, references are
   made to the memo that provides for the specification of these
   concepts or definitions.

2.3 International Considerations

   In the rest of this document, descriptions of characters are of the
   form "character name (codepoint)", where "codepoint" is from the US-
   ASCII character set. The "character name" is the authoritative
   description; (codepoint) is a reference to that character in US-ASCII
   or US-ASCII compatible sets (for example the ISO-8859-x family, UTF-
   8, ISO-2022-xx, KOI8-R). If a non-US-ASCII compatible character set
   is used, appropriate code-point from that character set MUST be
   chosen instead. Use of non-US-ASCII-compatible character sets is NOT
   recommended.

3  Registration Information

   The Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object Specification is intended
   for use as a MIME content type. However, the implementation of the
   memo is in no way limited solely as a MIME content type.

3.1 Content Type

   The following text is intended to register this memo as the MIME
   content type "text/calendar".

     To: ietf-types@uninett.no

     Subject: Registration of MIME content type text/calendar.

     MIME media type name: text

     MIME subtype name: calendar



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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


3.2 Parameters

   Required parameters: none

   Optional parameters: charset, method, component and optinfo

   The "charset" parameter is defined in [RFC 2046] for other body
   parts. It is used to identify the default character set used within
   the body part.

   The "method" parameter is used to convey the iCalendar object method
   or transaction semantics for the calendaring and scheduling
   information. It also is an identifier for the restricted set of
   properties and values that the iCalendar object consists of. The
   parameter is to be used as a guide for applications interpreting the
   information contained within the body part. It SHOULD NOT be used to
   exclude or require particular pieces of information unless the
   identified method definition specifically calls for this behavior.
   Unless specifically forbidden by a particular method definition, a
   text/calendar content type can contain any set of properties
   permitted by the Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object
   Specification. The "method" parameter MUST be the same value as that
   specified in the "METHOD" component property in the iCalendar object.
   If one is present, the other MUST also be present.

   The value for the "method" parameter is defined as follows:

        method  = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
        ; IANA registered iCalendar object method

   The "component" parameter conveys the type of iCalendar calendar
   component within the body part. If the iCalendar object contains more
   than one calendar component type, then multiple component parameters
   MUST be specified.

   The value for the "component" parameter is defined as follows:

        component       = ("VEVENT" / "VTODO" / "VJOURNAL" / "VFREEBUSY"
                        / "VTIMEZONE" / x-name / iana-token)

   The "optinfo" parameter conveys optional information about the
   iCalendar object within the body part. This parameter can only
   specify semantics already specified by the iCalendar object and that
   can be otherwise determined by parsing the body part. In addition,
   the optional information specified by this parameter MUST be
   consistent with that information specified by the iCalendar object.
   For example, it can be used to convey the "Attendee" response status
   to a meeting request. The parameter value consists of a string value.



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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


   The parameter can be specified multiple times.

   This parameter MAY only specify semantics already specified by the
   iCalendar object and that can be otherwise determined by parsing the
   body part.

   The value for the "optinfo" parameter is defined as follows:

        optinfo = infovalue / qinfovalue

        infovalue       = iana-token / x-name

        qinfovalue      = DQUOTE (infovalue) DQUOTE

3.3 Content Header Fields

   Optional content header fields: Any header fields defined by [RFC
   2045].

3.4 Encoding Considerations

   This MIME content type can contain 8bit characters, so the use of
   quoted-printable or BASE64 MIME content-transfer-encodings might be
   necessary when iCalendar objects are transferred across protocols
   restricted to the 7bit repertoire. Note that a text valued property
   in the content entity can also have content encoding of special
   characters using a BACKSLASH character (US-ASCII decimal 92)
   escapement technique. This means that content values can end up
   encoded twice.

3.5 Security Considerations

   SPOOFING - - In this memo, the "Organizer" is the only person
   authorized to make changes to an existing "VEVENT", "VTODO",
   "VJOURNAL" calendar component and redistribute the updates to the
   "Attendees". An iCalendar object that maliciously changes or cancels
   an existing "VEVENT", "VTODO" or "VJOURNAL" or "VFREEBUSY" calendar
   component might be constructed by someone other than the "Organizer"
   and sent to the "Attendees". In addition in this memo, other than the
   "Organizer", an "Attendee" of a "VEVENT", "VTODO", "VJOURNAL"
   calendar component is the only other person authorized to update any
   parameter associated with their "ATTENDEE" property and send it to
   the "Organizer". An iCalendar object that maliciously changes the
   "ATTENDEE" parameters can be constructed by someone other than the
   real "Attendee" and sent to the "Organizer".






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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


   PROCEDURAL ALARMS - - An iCalendar object can be created that
   contains a "VEVENT" and "VTODO" calendar component with "VALARM"
   calendar components. The "VALARM" calendar component can be of type
   PROCEDURE and can have an attachment containing some sort of
   executable program. Implementations that incorporate these types of
   alarms are subject to any virus or malicious attack that might occur
   as a result of executing the attachment.

   ATTACHMENTS - - An iCalendar object can include references to Uniform
   Resource Locators that can be programmed resources.

   Implementers and users of this memo should be aware of the network
   security implications of accepting and parsing such information. In
   addition, the security considerations observed by implementations of
   electronic mail systems should be followed for this memo.

3.6 Interoperability Considerations

   This MIME content type is intended to define a common format for
   conveying calendaring and scheduling information between different
   systems. It is heavily based on the earlier [VCAL] industry
   specification.

3.7 Applications Which Use This Media Type

   This content-type is designed for widespread use by Internet
   calendaring and scheduling applications. In addition, applications in
   the workflow and document management area might find this content-
   type applicable. The [ITIP] and [IMIP] Internet protocols directly
   use this content-type also. Future work on an Internet calendar
   access protocol will utilize this content-type too.

3.8 Additional Information

   This memo defines this content-type.

3.9 Magic Numbers

   None.

3.10 File Extensions

   The file extension of "ics" is to be used to designate a file
   containing (an arbitrary set of) calendaring and scheduling
   information consistent with this MIME content type.






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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


   The file extension of "ifb" is to be used to designate a file
   containing free or busy time information consistent with this MIME
   content type.

   Macintosh file type codes: The file type code of "iCal" is to be used
   in Apple MacIntosh operating system environments to designate a file
   containing calendaring and scheduling information consistent with
   this MIME media type.

   The file type code of "iFBf" is to be used in Apple MacIntosh
   operating system environments to designate a file containing free or
   busy time information consistent with this MIME media type.

3.11 Contact for Further Information:

   Frank Dawson
   6544 Battleford Drive
   Raleigh, NC 27613-3502
   919-676-9515 (Telephone)
   919-676-9564 (Data/Facsimile)
   Frank_Dawson@Lotus.com (Internet Mail)

   Derik Stenerson
   One Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA  98052-6399
   425-936-5522 (Telephone)
   425-936-7329 (Facsimile)
   deriks@microsoft.com (Internet Mail)

3.12 Intended Usage

   COMMON

3.13 Authors/Change Controllers

   Frank Dawson
   6544 Battleford Drive
   Raleigh, NC 27613-3502
   919-676-9515 (Telephone)
   919-676-9564 (Data/Facsimile)
   Frank_Dawson@Lotus.com (Internet Mail)

   Derik Stenerson
   One Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA  98052-6399
   425-936-5522 (Telephone)
   425-936-7329 (Facsimile)
   deriks@microsoft.com (Internet Mail)



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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


4 iCalendar Object Specification

   The following sections define the details of a Calendaring and
   Scheduling Core Object Specification. This information is intended to
   be an integral part of the MIME content type registration. In
   addition, this information can be used independent of such content
   registration. In particular, this memo has direct applicability for
   use as a calendaring and scheduling exchange format in file-, memory-
   or network-based transport mechanisms.

4.1 Content Lines

   The iCalendar object is organized into individual lines of text,
   called content lines. Content lines are delimited by a line break,
   which is a CRLF sequence (US-ASCII decimal 13, followed by US-ASCII
   decimal 10).

   Lines of text SHOULD NOT be longer than 75 octets, excluding the line
   break. Long content lines SHOULD be split into a multiple line
   representations using a line "folding" technique. That is, a long
   line can be split between any two characters by inserting a CRLF
   immediately followed by a single linear white space character (i.e.,
   SPACE, US-ASCII decimal 32 or HTAB, US-ASCII decimal 9). Any sequence
   of CRLF followed immediately by a single linear white space character
   is ignored (i.e., removed) when processing the content type.

   For example the line:

     DESCRIPTION:This is a long description that exists on a long line.

   Can be represented as:

     DESCRIPTION:This is a lo
      ng description
       that exists on a long line.

   The process of moving from this folded multiple line representation
   to its single line representation is called "unfolding". Unfolding is
   accomplished by removing the CRLF character and the linear white
   space character that immediately follows.

   When parsing a content line, folded lines MUST first be unfolded
   according to the unfolding procedure described above. When generating
   a content line, lines longer than 75 octets SHOULD be folded
   according to the folding procedure described above.






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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


   The content information associated with an iCalendar object is
   formatted using a syntax similar to that defined by [RFC 2425]. That
   is, the content information consists of CRLF-separated content lines.

   The following notation defines the lines of content in an iCalendar
   object:

     contentline        = name *(";" param ) ":" value CRLF
        ; This ABNF is just a general definition for an initial parsing
        ; of the content line into its property name, parameter list,
        ; and value string

     ; When parsing a content line, folded lines MUST first
        ; be unfolded according to the unfolding procedure
        ; described above. When generating a content line, lines
        ; longer than 75 octets SHOULD be folded according to
        ; the folding procedure described above.

     name               = x-name / iana-token

     iana-token = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
     ; iCalendar identifier registered with IANA

     x-name             = "X-" [vendorid "-"] 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
     ; Reservered for experimental use. Not intended for use in
     ; released products.

     vendorid   = 3*(ALPHA / DIGIT)     ;Vendor identification

     param              = param-name "=" param-value
                          *("," param-value)
        ; Each property defines the specific ABNF for the parameters
        ; allowed on the property. Refer to specific properties for
        ; precise parameter ABNF.

     param-name = iana-token / x-token

     param-value        = paramtext / quoted-string

     paramtext  = *SAFE-CHAR

     value      = *VALUE-CHAR

     quoted-string      = DQUOTE *QSAFE-CHAR DQUOTE

     NON-US-ASCII       = %x80-F8
     ; Use restricted by charset parameter
     ; on outer MIME object (UTF-8 preferred)



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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


     QSAFE-CHAR = WSP / %x21 / %x23-7E / NON-US-ASCII
     ; Any character except CTLs and DQUOTE

     SAFE-CHAR  = WSP / %x21 / %x23-2B / %x2D-39 / %x3C-7E
                / NON-US-ASCII
     ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE, ";", ":", ","

     VALUE-CHAR = WSP / %x21-7E / NON-US-ASCII
     ; Any textual character

     CR = %x0D
     ; carriage return

     LF = %x0A
     ; line feed

     CRLF       = CR LF
     ; Internet standard newline

     CTL        = %x00-08 / %x0A-1F / %x7F
        ; Controls

     ALPHA      = %x41-5A / %x61-7A   ; A-Z / a-z

     DIGIT      = %x30-39
        ; 0-9

     DQUOTE     = %x22
        ; Quotation Mark

     WSP        = SPACE / HTAB

     SPACE      = %x20

     HTAB       = %x09

   The property value component of a content line has a format that is
   property specific. Refer to the section describing each property for
   a definition of this format.

   All names of properties, property parameters, enumerated property
   values and property parameter values are case-insensitive. However,
   all other property values are case-sensitive, unless otherwise
   stated.







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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


4.1.1 List and Field Separators

   Some properties and parameters allow a list of values. Values in a
   list of values MUST be separated by a COMMA character (US-ASCII
   decimal 44). There is no significance to the order of values in a
   list. For those parameter values (such as those that specify URI
   values) that are specified in quoted-strings, the individual quoted-
   strings are separated by a COMMA character (US-ASCII decimal 44).

   Some property values are defined in terms of multiple parts. These
   structured property values MUST have their value parts separated by a
   SEMICOLON character (US-ASCII decimal 59).

   Some properties allow a list of parameters. Each property parameter
   in a list of property parameters MUST be separated by a SEMICOLON
   character (US-ASCII decimal 59).

   Property parameters with values containing a COLON, a SEMICOLON or a
   COMMA character MUST be placed in quoted text.

   For example, in the following properties a SEMICOLON is used to
   separate property parameters from each other, and a COMMA is used to
   separate property values in a value list.

     ATTENDEE;RSVP=TRUE;ROLE=REQ-PARTICIPANT:MAILTO:
      jsmith@host.com

     RDATE;VALUE=DATE:19970304,19970504,19970704,19970904

4.1.2 Multiple Values

   Some properties defined in the iCalendar object can have multiple
   values. The general rule for encoding multi-valued items is to simply
   create a new content line for each value, including the property
   name. However, it should be noted that some properties support
   encoding multiple values in a single property by separating the
   values with a COMMA character (US-ASCII decimal 44). Individual
   property definitions should be consulted for determining whether a
   specific property allows multiple values and in which of these two
   forms.

4.1.3 Binary Content

   Binary content information in an iCalendar object SHOULD be
   referenced using a URI within a property value. That is the binary
   content information SHOULD be placed in an external MIME entity that
   can be referenced by a URI from within the iCalendar object. In
   applications where this is not feasible, binary content information



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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


   can be included within an iCalendar object, but only after first
   encoding it into text using the "BASE64" encoding method defined in
   [RFC 2045]. Inline binary contact SHOULD only be used in applications
   whose special circumstances demand that an iCalendar object be
   expressed as a single entity. A property containing inline binary
   content information MUST specify the "ENCODING" property parameter.
   Binary content information placed external to the iCalendar object
   MUST be referenced by a uniform resource identifier (URI).

   The following example specifies an "ATTACH" property that references
   an attachment external to the iCalendar object with a URI reference:

     ATTACH:http://xyz.com/public/quarterly-report.doc

   The following example specifies an "ATTACH" property with inline
   binary encoded content information:

     ATTACH;FMTTYPE=image/basic;ENCODING=BASE64;VALUE=BINARY:
      MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1U
      EBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bmljYXRpb25zIE
        <...remainder of "BASE64" encoded binary data...>

4.1.4 Character Set

   There is not a property parameter to declare the character set used
   in a property value. The default character set for an iCalendar
   object is UTF-8 as defined in [RFC 2279].

   The "charset" Content-Type parameter can be used in MIME transports
   to specify any other IANA registered character set.

4.2 Property Parameters

   A property can have attributes associated with it. These "property
   parameters" contain meta-information about the property or the
   property value. Property parameters are provided to specify such
   information as the location of an alternate text representation for a
   property value, the language of a text property value, the data type
   of the property value and other attributes.

   Property parameter values that contain the COLON (US-ASCII decimal
   58), SEMICOLON (US-ASCII decimal 59) or COMMA (US-ASCII decimal 44)
   character separators MUST be specified as quoted-string text values.
   Property parameter values MUST NOT contain the DOUBLE-QUOTE (US-ASCII
   decimal 22) character. The DOUBLE-QUOTE (US-ASCII decimal 22)
   character is used as a delimiter for parameter values that contain
   restricted characters or URI text. For example:




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RFC 2445                       iCalendar                   November 1998


     DESCRIPTION;ALTREP="http://www.wiz.org":The Fall'98 Wild Wizards
       Conference - - Las Vegas, NV, USA

   Property parameter values that are not in quoted strings are case
   insensitive.

   The general property parameters defined by this memo are defined by
   the following notation:

     parameter  = altrepparam           ; Alternate text representation
                / cnparam               ; Common name
                / cutypeparam           ; Calendar user type
                / delfromparam          ; Delegator
                / deltoparam            ; Delegatee
                / dirparam              ; Directory entry
                / encodingparam         ; Inline encoding
                / fmttypeparam          ; Format type
                / fbtypeparam           ; Free/busy time type
                / languageparam         ; Language for text
                / memberparam           ; Group or list membership
                / partstatparam         ; Participation status
                / rangeparam            ; Recurrence identifier range
                / trigrelparam          ; Alarm trigger relationship
                / reltypeparam          ; Relationship type
                / roleparam             ; Participation role
                / rsvpparam             ; RSVP expectation
                / sentbyparam           ; Sent by
                / tzidparam             ; Reference to time zone object
                / valuetypeparam        ; Property value data type
                / ianaparam
        ; Some other IANA registered iCalendar parameter.
                / xparam
        ; A non-standard, experimental parameter.

     ianaparam  = iana-token "=" param-value *("," param-value)

     xparam     =x-name "=" param-value *("," param-value)

4.2.1 Alternate Text Representation

   Parameter Name: ALTREP

   Purpose: To specify an alternate text representation for the property
   value.

   Format Definition: The property parameter is defined by the following
   notation:




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RFC 2445                       iCale