~samiam/MaraDNS

ref: 3.5.0021 MaraDNS/doc/en/faq.txt -rw-r--r-- 39.4 KiB
ca00f282 — Sam Trenholme MaraDNS release 3.5.0021 5 months ago
                                                                                
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
   Back to main page

                      FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

INDEX

     1. I'm using an older version of MaraDNS

     2. How do I try out MaraDNS?

     3. What license is MaraDNS released under?

     4. How do I report bugs in MaraDNS?

     5. Some of the postings to the mailing list do not talk
     about MaraDNS!

     6. How do I get off the mailing list?

     7. How do I set up reverse DNS on MaraDNS?

     8. I am on a slow network, and MaraDNS can not process
     recursive queries

     9. When I try to run MaraDNS, I get a cryptic error
     message.

     10. After I start MaraDNS, I can not see the process when
     I run netstat -na

     11. What string library does MaraDNS use?

     12. Why does MaraDNS use a multi-threaded model?

     13. I feel that XXX feature should be added to MaraDNS

     14. I feel that MaraDNS should use another documentation
     format

     15. Is there any process I need to follow to add a patch
     to MaraDNS?

     16. Can MaraDNS act as a primary nameserver?

     17. Can MaraDNS act as a secondary nameserver?

     18. What is the difference between an authoritative and a
     recursive DNS server?

     19. The getzone client isn't allowing me to add certain
     hostnames to my zone

     20. Is MaraDNS portable?

     21. Can I use MaraDNS in Windows?

     22. MaraDNS freezes up after being used for a while

     23. What kind of Python integration does MaraDNS have

     24. Doesn't "kvar" mean "four" in Esperanto?

     25. How scalable is MaraDNS?

     26. I am having problems setting upstream_servers

     27. Why doesn't the MaraDNS.org web page validate?

     28. How do MX records work?

     29. Does MaraDNS have support for SPF?

     30. I'm having problems resolving CNAMES I have set up.

     31. I have a NS delegation, and MaraDNS is doing strange
     things.

     32. I am transferring a zone from another server, but the
     NS records are these strange "synth-ip" records.

     33. Where is the root.hints file?

     34. Are there any plans to use autoconf to build MaraDNS?

     35. How do I change the compiler or compile-time flags
     with MaraDNS' build process?

     36. Will you make a package for the particular Linux
     distribution I am using?

     37. I am using the native Windows port of MaraDNS, and
     some features are not working.

     38. MaraDNS isn't starting up

     39. You make a lot of releases of MaraDNS; at our ISP/IT
     department, updating software is non-trivial.

     40. I have star records in my zones, and am having
     problems with NXDOMAINs/IPV6 resolution

     41. I have a zone with only SOA/NS records, and the zone
     is not working.

     42. I am having problems registering my domain with AFNIC
     (the registrar for .fr domains)

     43. I can't see the full answers for subdomains I have
     delegated

     44. MaraDNS 1 has a problem resolving a domain

     45. MaraDNS 1.2 has issues with NXDOMAINS and case
     sensitivity.

     46. Can MaraDNS offer protection from phishing and
     malicious sites?

     47. Does maradns support star (wildcard) records?

     48. I'm having problems using MaraDNS with some *NIX
     command line applications like telnet

     49. My virus scanner reports that MaraDNS or Deadwood has
     a virus

     50. I can not subscribe to the MaraDNS mailing list

     51. How does MaraDNS respond to EDNS (RFC2671) packets?

     52. How to I get MaraDNS to always give the same IP to all
     DNS queries?

     53. Why did you change MaraDNS' tagline?

     54. How do you stop MaraDNS from taking part in a
     distributed denial-of-service attack?

     55. What about DNS-over-TCP?

     56. How do I use MaraDNS with systemd?

     57. Why doesn't MaraDNS use IP_FREEBIND?

     58. Is there a web interface for MaraDNS?

     59. What does the message “don’t forget the trailing dot”
     mean?

     60. Does MaraDNS support newer top level domains?

     61. Can MaraDNS handle IDN domain names?

ANSWERS

1. I'm using an older version of MaraDNS

   Upgrade to MaraDNS 2.0. Here is an upgrade guide.

   MaraDNS 1 is no longer supported; support ended on June 21,
   2015.

2. How do I try out MaraDNS?

   Read the quick start guide, which is the file named
   0QuickStart in the MaraDNS distribution.

3. What license is MaraDNS released under?

   MaraDNS is released with the following two-clause BSD-type
   license:

     Copyright (c) 2002-2016 Sam Trenholme and others

     TERMS

     Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
     without modification, are permitted provided that the
     following conditions are met:

     1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above
     copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
     following disclaimer.

     2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
     copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
     following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other
     materials provided with the distribution.

     This software is provided 'as is' with no guarantees of
     correctness or fitness for purpose.

4. How do I report bugs in MaraDNS?

   Post your bug report as a Github issue.

5. Some of the postings to the mailing list do not talk about
MaraDNS!

   As of September 2013, the mailing list has become moderated
   and only postings on the mailing list are relevant MaraDNS
   announcements.

6. How do I get off the mailing list?

   Send an email to list-unsubscribe@maradns.org, or an email to
   list-request@maradns.org with "unsubscribe" as the subject
   line.

   The mailing list will send you an email confirming the
   unsubscribe request; this email needs to be replied to in
   order to get off the list.

7. How do I set up reverse DNS on MaraDNS?

   Reverse DNS (sometimes called "reverse mapping") is set up by
   using PTR (pointer) records. For example, the PTR record
   which performs the reverse DNS lookup for the ip 10.2.3.4
   looks like this in a CSV2 zone file:

     4.3.2.10.in-addr.arpa. PTR www.example.com.

   It is also possible to use a special "FQDN4" which
   automatically sets up the reverse mapping of a given record:

     www.example.com. FQDN4 10.2.3.4

   If you wish to have a PTR (reverse DNS lookup; getting a DNS
   name from a numeric IP) record work on the internet at large,
   it is not a simple matter of just adding a record like this
   to a MaraDNS zonefile. One also needs control of the
   appropriate in-addr.arpa. domain.

   While it could make logical sense to contact the IP
   10.11.12.13 when trying to get the reverse DNS lookup (fully
   qualified domain name) for a given IP, DNS servers don't do
   this. DNS server, instead, contact the root DNS servers for a
   given in-addr.arpa name to get the reverse DNS lookup, just
   like they do with any other record type.

   When an internet service provider is given a block of IPs,
   they are also given control of the DNS zones which allow them
   to control reverse DNS lookups for those IPs. While it is
   possible to obtain a domain and run a DNS server without the
   knowledge or intervention of an ISP, being able to control
   reverse DNS lookups for those IPs requires ISP intervention.

8. I am on a slow network, and Deadwood can not process recursive
queries

   Deadwood, by default, only waits two seconds for a reply from
   a remote DNS server. This default can be increased by adding
   a line like this in the mararc file:

timeout_seconds = 5

   Note that making this too high will slow MaraDNS down when
   DNS servers are down, which is, alas, all too common on
   today's internet.

9. When I try to run MaraDNS, I get a cryptic error message.

   There is usually some context of where there is a syntax
   error in a data file before the cryptic error message. For
   example, when there is a syntax error in a csv2 zone file,
   MaraDNS will tell you exactly at what point it had to
   terminate parsing of the zone file.

   If MaraDNS does return a cryptic error message without
   letting you know what is wrong, let us know in a Github issue
   so that we can fix the bug. MaraDNS is designed to be easy to
   use; cryptic error messages go against this spirit.

10. After I start MaraDNS, I can not see the process when I run
netstat -na

   Udp services do not have a prominent "LISTEN" when netstat is
   run.

   When MaraDNS is up, the relevant line in the netstat output
   looks like this: udp 0 0 127.0.0.1:53 0.0.0.0:*

   While on the topic of netstat, if you run netstat -nap as
   root on Linux and some other *nix operating systems, you can
   see the names of the processes which are providing internet
   services.

11. What string library does MaraDNS use?

   MaraDNS uses its own string library, which is called the
   "js_string" library. Man pages for most of the functions in
   the js_string library are in the folder doc/man of the
   MaraDNS distribution

12. Why does MaraDNS use a multi-threaded model?

   MaraDNS 2.0 no longer uses threads.

   It took me three years to rewrite MaraDNS' recursive resolver
   as a separate non-threaded daemon. This has been done, and
   now all recursion is done with Deadwood which does not need
   threads.

13. I feel that XXX feature should be added to MaraDNS

   There are no plans to add new features to MaraDNS or Deadwood
   at this time.

14. I feel that MaraDNS should use another documentation format

   The reason that MaraDNS uses its own documentation format is
   to satisfy both the needs of translators to have a unified
   document format and my own need to use a documentation format
   that is simple enough to be readily understood and which I
   can add features on an as needed basis.

   The documentation format is essentially simplified HTML with
   some special tags added to meet MaraDNS' special needs.

   This gives me more flexibility to adapt the documentation
   format to changing needs. For example, when someone pointed
   out that it's not a good idea to have man pages with hi-bit
   characters, it was a simple matter to add a new HIBIT tag
   which allows man pages to be without hi-bit characters, and
   other document formats to retain hi-bit characters.

   Having a given program have its own documentation format is
   not without precedent; Perl uses its own "pod" documentation
   format.

15. Is there any process I need to follow to add a patch to MaraDNS?

   I no longer accept third party patches

16. Can MaraDNS act as a primary nameserver?

   Yes.

   The zoneserver program serves zones so that other DNS servers
   can be secondaries for zones which MaraDNS serves. This is a
   separate program from the maradns server, which processes
   authoritative UDP DNS queries, and Deadwood which processes
   recursive DNS queries.

   See the DNS master document in the MaraDNS tutorial for
   details.

17. Can MaraDNS act as a secondary nameserver?

   Yes.

   Please read the DNS slave document, which is part of the
   MaraDNS tutorial.

18. What is the difference between an authoritative and a recursive
DNS server?

   A recursive DNS server is a DNS server that is able to
   contact other DNS servers in order to resolve a given domain
   name label. This is the kind of DNS server one points to in
   /etc/resolv.conf. MaraDNS uses the Deadwood daemon to process
   recursive DNS queries.

   An authoritative DNS server is a DNS server that a recursive
   server contacts in order to find out the answer to a given
   DNS query. The maradns daemon processes authoritative DNS
   queries.

19. The fetchzone client isn't allowing me to add certain hostnames
to my zone

   For security reasons, MaraDNS' fetchzone client does not add
   records which are not part of the zone in question. For
   example, if someone has a zone for example.com, and this
   record in the zone:

   1.1.1.10.in-addr.arpa. PTR dns.example.com.

   MaraDNS will not add the record, since the record is
   out-of-bailiwick. In other words, it is a host name that does
   not end in .example.com.

   There are two workarounds for this issue:
     * Create a zone file for 1.1.10.in-addr.arpa., and put the
       PTR records there.
     * Use rcp, rsync, or another method to copy over the zone
       files in question.

20. Is MaraDNS portable?

   MaraDNS is developed in CentOS 6 and Windows 7. MaraDNS may
   or may not compile and run on other systems.

21. Can I use MaraDNS in Windows?

   Yes. There is both a partial mingw32 (native win32 binary)
   port and a full Cygwin port of MaraDNS; both of these ports
   are part of the native build of MaraDNS. Deadwood has full
   Windows support, including the ability to run as a service.

22. MaraDNS freezes up after being used for a while

   If using your ISP's name servers or some other name servers
   which are not, in fact, root name servers, please make sure
   that you are using the upstream_servers dictionary variable
   instead of the root_servers dictionary variable.

   If you still see MaraDNS freeze up after making this
   correction, please send a bug report as a Github issue.

23. What kind of Python integration does MaraDNS have

   The mararc file uses the same syntax that Python uses; in
   fact, Python can parse a properly formatted mararc file.

   There is no other integration with Python.

24. Doesn't "kvar" mean "four" in Esperanto?

   Indeed, it does. However the use of "kvar" in the MaraDNS
   source code only coincidentally is an Esperanto word. "kvar"
   is short for "Kiwi variable"; a lot of the parsing code comes
   from the code used in the Kiwi spam filter project.

25. How scalable is MaraDNS?

   MaraDNS is optimized for serving a small number of domains as
   quickly as possible. That said, MaraDNS is remarkably
   efficnent for serving a large number of domains, as long as
   the server MaraDNS is on has the memory to fit all of the
   domains, and as long as the startup time for loading a large
   number of domains can be worked around.

   The "big-O" or "theta" growth rates for various MaraDNS
   functions are as follows, where N is the number of
   authoritative host names being served:

Startup time                            N
Memory usage                            N
Processing incoming DNS requests        1

   As can be seen, MaraDNS will process 1 or 100000 domains in
   the same amount of time, once the domain names are loaded in
   to memory.

26. I am having problems setting upstream_servers

   upstream_servers is only supported by Deadwood, and is no
   longer supported in MaraDNS 2.0. The upstream_servers
   dwood3rc variable is set thusly:

     upstream_servers["."] = "10.3.28.79, 10.2.19.83"

   Note the ["."].

   Note that the upstream_servers variable needs to be
   initialized before being used via upstream_servers = {} (the
   reason for this is so that a dwood3rc file has 100%
   Python-compatible syntax). A complete dwood3rc file that uses
   upstream_servers may look like this:
ipv4_bind_addresses = "127.0.0.1"
chroot_dir = "/etc/maradns"
recursive_acl = "127.0.0.1/8"
upstream_servers = {}
upstream_servers["."] = "10.1.2.3, 10.2.4.6"

27. Why doesn't the MaraDNS.org web page validate?

   HTML pages on the MaraDNS.org web site should validate as
   HTML 4.0 Transitional. However, the CSS will not validate.

   I have designed MaraDNS' web page to be usable and as
   attractive as possible in any major browser released in the
   last ten years. Cross-browser support is more important than
   strict W3 validation. The reason why the CSS does not
   validate is because I need a way to make sure there is always
   a scrollbar on the web page, even if the content is not big
   enough to merit one; this is to avoid the content jumping
   from page to page. There is no standard CSS tag that lets me
   do this. I'm using a non-standard tag to enable this in Gecko
   (Firefox's rendering engine); this is enabled by default in
   Trident (Internet Explorer's rendering engine). The standards
   are deficient and blind adherence to them would result in an
   inferior web site.

   There are also two validation warnings generated by
   redefinitions which are needed as part of the CSS filters
   used to make the site attractive on older browsers with
   limited CSS support.

   On a related note, the reason why I use tables instead of CSS
   for some of the layout is because Microsoft Internet Explorer
   6 and other browsers do not have support for the max-width
   CSS property. Without this property, the web page will not
   scale down correctly without using tables. Additionally,
   tables allow a reasonably attractive header in browsers
   without CSS support.

28. How do MX records work?

   How MX records work:
     * The mail transport agent (Sendmail, Postfix, Qmail, MS
       Exchange, etc.) looks up the MX record for the domain
     * For each of the records returned, the MTA (mail transport
       agent) looks up the IP for the names.
     * It will choose, at random, any of the MXes with the
       lowest priority number.
     * Should that server fail, it will try another server with
       the same priority number.
     * Should all MX records with a given priority number fail,
       the MTA will try sending email to any of the MX records
       with the second-lowest priority value.

   As an aside, do not have MX records point to CNAMEs.

29. Does MaraDNS have support for SPF?

   SPF, or sender policy framework, is method of using DNS that
   makes it more difficult to forge email. MaraDNS has full
   support for SPF, both via TXT records and RFC4408 SPF
   records.

   SPF configuration is beyond the scope of MaraDNS'
   documentation. However, at the time this FAQ entry was last
   updated (July, 2013), information and documentation
   concerning SPF is available at http://openspf.org. The BIND
   examples will work in MaraDNS csv2 zone files as long as the
   double quotes (") are replaced by single quotes ('). For
   example, a SPF TXT record that looks like example.net. IN TXT
   "v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 -all" in a BIND zone file
   will look like example.net. TXT 'v=spf1 +mx
   a:colo.example.com/28 -all' in a MaraDNS zone file. MaraDNS
   can also make the corresponding SPF record, which will have
   the syntax example.net. SPF 'v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28
   -all'.

   Use '\x7e' to put a tilde ("~" character) in a SPF record:

   example.com. SPF 'v=spf1 +mx a:colo.example.com/28 '\x7e'all'

30. I'm having problems resolving CNAMES I have set up.

   This is probably because you have set up what MaraDNS calls a
   dangling CNAME record.

   Let us suppose we have a CNAME record without an A record in
   the local DNS server's database, such as:
        google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.

   This record, which is a CNAME record for
   "google.example.com", points to "www.google.com". Some DNS
   servers will recursively look up www.google.com, and render
   the above record like this:
        google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.
        www.google.com. A 66.102.7.104

   For security reasons, MaraDNS doesn't do this. Instead,
   MaraDNS will simply output:
        google.example.com. CNAME www.google.com.

   Some stub resolvers will be unable to resolve
   google.example.com as a consequence.

   If you set up MaraDNS to resolve CNAMEs thusly, you will get
   a warning in your logs about having a dangling CNAME record.

   If you want to remove these warnings, add the following to
   your mararc file:
        no_cname_warnings = 1

   Information about how to get MaraDNS to resolve dangling
   CNAME records is in the tutorial file dangling.html

31. I have a NS delegation, and MaraDNS is doing strange things.

   This is only an issue in MaraDNS 1.4. MaraDNS 2.0 does not
   allow the same IP to both authoritatively and recursively
   resolve records.

32. I am transferring a zone from another server, but the NS records
are these strange "synth-ip" records.

   MaraDNS expects, in csv2 zone files, for all delegation NS
   records to be between the SOA record and the first non-NS
   record.

   If a zone looks like this:
example.net. +600 soa ns1.example.net.
hostmaster@example.net 10 10800 3600 604800 1080
example.net. +600 mx 10 mail.example.net.
example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.5
example.net. +600 ns ns1.example.net.
example.net. +600 ns ns3.example.net.
mail.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.7
www.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.11

   Then the NS records will be "synth-ip" records.

   The zone should look like this:
example.net. +600 soa ns1.example.net.
hostmaster@example.net 10 10800 3600 604800 1080
example.net. +600 ns ns1.example.net.
example.net. +600 ns ns3.example.net.
example.net. +600 mx 10 mail.example.net.
example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.5
mail.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.7
www.example.net. +600 a 10.2.3.11

   This will remove the "synth-ip" records.

   To automate this process, this awk script is useful:
fetchzone whatever.zone.foo 10.1.2.3 | awk '
{if($3 ~ /ns/ || $3 ~ /soa/){print}
else{a = a "\n" $0}}
END{print a}' > zonefile.csv2

   Replace "whatever.zone.foo" with the name of the zone you are
   fetchin 10.1.2.3 with the IP address of the DNS master, and
   zonefile.csv2 with the name of the zone file MaraDNS loads.

33. Where is the root.hints file?

   MaraDNS (actually, Deadwood), unlike BIND, does not need a
   complicated root.hints file in order to have custom root
   servers. In order to change the root.hints file, add
   something like this to your dwood3rc file:
root_servers["."] =  "131.161.247.232,"
root_servers["."] += "208.185.249.250,"
root_servers["."] += "66.227.42.140,"
root_servers["."] += "66.227.42.149,"
root_servers["."] += "65.243.92.254"

   Note that there is no "+=" in the first line, and the last
   line does not have a comma at the end. Read the recursive
   tutorial document for more information.

34. Are there any plans to use autoconf to build MaraDNS?

   No.

   In more detail, MaraDNS does not use autoconf for the
   following reasons:
     * Autoconf is designed to solve a problem that existed in
       the mid 1990s but does not exist today: A large number of
       different incompatible C compilers and libc
       implementations. These days, most systems are using gcc
       as the compiler and some version of glibc as the libc.
       There is no longer a need, for example, to figure out
       whether a given implementation of getopt() allows '--'
       options. MaraDNS's ./configure script can be run in only
       a second or two; compare this to the 3-5 minute process
       autoconf's ./configure needs.
     * Autoconf leaves GPL-tained files in a program's build
       tree. MaraDNS is licensed under a BSD license that is not
       GPL-compatible, so MaraDNS can not be distributed with
       these GPL-licensed files.

   This leads us to the next question:

35. How do I change the compiler or compile-time flags with MaraDNS'
build process?

   To change the compiler used by MaraDNS:
     * Run the ./configure script
     * Open up the file Makefile with an editor
     * Look for a line that starts with CC
     * If there is no line that starts with CC, create one just
       before the line that starts with FLAGS
     * Change (or create) that line to look something like
       CC=gcc296 In this example, the 2.96 version of gcc is
       used to compile MaraDNS.
     * Note that it is important to not remove anything from
       this line you do not understand; doing so will make
       MaraDNS unable to compile or run. So, if the CC line
       looks like CC=gcc $(LDFLAGS) -DNO_FLOCK and you want to
       compile with gcc 2.96, change the line to look like
       CC=gcc296 $(LDFLAGS) -DNO_FLOCK retaining the flags added
       by the configuration script.

   Changing compile-time flags is a similar process:
     * Run the ./configure script
     * Open up the file Makefile with an editor
     * Look for a line that starts with FLAGS
     * Change (or create) that line to look something like
       FLAGS=-O3 In this example, MaraDNS is compiled with the
       -O3 option.
     * Note that it is important to not remove anything from
       this line you do not understand; doing so will make
       MaraDNS unable to compile or run. So, if the FLAGS line
       looks like FLAGS=-O2 -Wall -DSELECT_PROBLEM and you want
       to compile at optimization level three, change this line
       to look like FLAGS=-O2 -Wall -DSELECT_PROBLEM retaining
       the flags added by the configuration script.
       -DSELECT_PROBLEM for example, is needed in the Linux
       compile or MaraDNS will have problems with freezing up.

36. Will you make a package for the particular Linux distribution I
am using?

   No.

   There is, however, a CentOS 5-compatible RPM spec file in the
   build directory.

37. I am using the native Windows port of MaraDNS, and some features
are not working.

   Since Windows 32 does not have some features that *NIX OSes
   have, the native Windows port does not have all of the
   features of the *NIX version of MaraDNS. In particular, the
   following features are disabled:
     * ipv6 (this is actually a mingw32, not a Windows
       deficiency)
     * The chroot_dir mararc variable
     * The maradns_gid and maradns_uid mararc variables
     * The maxprocs mararc variable
     * The synth_soa_serial variable can not have a value of 2
     * There is no DNS-over-TCP support

   If any of the above features are desired, try compiling
   MaraDNS using Cygwin. Note that the Cygwin port of MaraDNS
   does not have ipv6 support, and that while chroot_dir works
   in Cygwin, it does not have the security that the *NIX
   chroot() call has.

38. MaraDNS isn't starting up

   This is usually caused by a syntax error in one's mararc
   file, or by another MaraDNS process already running. To see
   what is happening, look at your system log (/var/log/messages
   in Centos 3) to see what errors MaraDNS reports. If you do
   not know how to look at a system log, you can also invoke
   MaraDNS from the command line as root; any errors will be
   visible when starting MaraDNS.

39. You make a lot of releases of MaraDNS; at our ISP/IT department,
updating software is non-trivial.

   Regularly updating software is required to keep something as
   complicated as a DNS server secure; there is not a DNS server
   out there so secure that it never needs to be updated.

   Since MaraDNS is finished, updates usually only happen about
   once a year.

   The last security bug which required a MaraDNS update was
   made before September 28, 2015.

40. I have star records in my zones, and am having problems with
NXDOMAINs/IPV6 resolution

   This was a bug in MaraDNS 1.2 which has long since been
   fixed.

41. I have a zone with only SOA/NS records, and the zone is not
working.

   MaraDNS 1.2 had a bug where it did not correctly process
   zones without any "normal" records. Upgrade to MaraDNS 2.0.

42. I am having problems registering my domain with AFNIC (the
registrar for .fr domains)

   Because of an issue with AFNIC (who, annoyingly enough, check
   the RA bit when registering a domain), in order to register a
   domain with AFNIC using MaraDNS as your DNS server, the
   following steps need to be followed:
     * MaraDNS version 1.4 or 2.0 needs to be used; if you're
       using an older version of MaraDNS, upgrade.
     * It is necessary to have recursion disabled, if using
       MaraDNS 1.4, either by compiling MaraDNS without
       recursive support (./configure --authonly ; make), or by
       making sure MaraDNS does not have recursion enabled (by
       not having recursive_acl set in one's MaraDNS 1.4 mararc
       file)

   If one wishes to both register domains with AFNIC and use
   MaraDNS 1.4 as a recursive DNS server, it is required to have
   the recursive server be a separate instance of MaraDNS on a
   separate IP. It is not possible to have the same DNS server
   both send DNS packets in a way that both makes AFNIC happy
   and allows recursive queries.

   Note also: AFNIC gives warnings about reverse DNS lookups;
   more information about this issue can be found in the FAQ
   entry about reverse DNS mappings (question 7). In addition,
   AFNIC requires DNS-over-TCP to work; information on
   configuring MaraDNS to have this can be found in the
   DNS-over-TCP tutorial.

43. I can't see the full answers for subdomains I have delegated

   To have the subdomains be visible to MaraDNS 1.4 recursive
   nameservers, add the following to your mararc file:

   recurse_delegation = 1

44. MaraDNS 1 has a problem resolving a domain

   This issue should be fixed in MaraDNS 2.0.

   Here's what happening: I have rewritten the recursive
   resolver for MaraDNS. The old code was always designed to be
   a placeholder until I wrote a new recursive resolver.

   The new recursive resolver is called "Deadwood"; right now
   it's fully functional and part of MaraDNS 2.0. More
   information is here:

   http://maradns.blogspot.com/search/label/Deadwood

   http://maradns.samiam.org/deadwood/

   Since the old recursive code is a bit difficult to maintain,
   and since I in the process of rewriting the recursive code,
   my rule is that I will only resolve security issues with
   MaraDNS 1.0's recursive resolver.

45. MaraDNS 1.2 had issues with NXDOMAINS and case sensitivity.

   There was a known bug in MaraDNS 1.2.12 where, should a
   client ask for a non-existent record in all caps, MaraDNS
   1.2.12 will return a NXDOMAIN instead of a "not there" reply.
   Upgrade to 2.0.

46. Can MaraDNS offer protection from phishing and malicious sites?

   Deadwood can block up to about 20,000 domains. More details
   are in the Deadwood FAQ.

47. Does maradns support star (wildcard) records?

   Yes.

   MaraDNS supports both having stars at the beginning of
   records and the end of records. For example, to have
   anything.example.com. have the IP 10.1.2.3, add this line to
   the zone file for example.com:

   *.example.com. A 10.1.2.3

   To have stars at the end of records, csv2_default_zonefile
   has to be set. The mararc parameter bind_star_handling
   affects how star records are handled. More information is in
   the mararc man page.

48. I'm having problems using MaraDNS with some *NIX command line
applications like telnet.

   Some *NIX command line networking applications, such as
   telnet and ssh, try to do either a reverse DNS lookup
   (IP-to-host name conversion) or an IPv6 lookup. This slows
   things down and sometimes causes the applications to not work
   at all.

   For people who do not need IPv6 lookups, add the following
   line to one's mararc file to have MaraDNS respond to all IPv6
   lookups with a bogus "not found" reply:

   reject_aaaa = 1

   If knowing the hostname a given IP has isn't important, these
   kinds of lookups can also be disabled:

   reject_ptr = 1

49. My virus scanner reports that MaraDNS or Deadwood has a virus

   This can be caused either by a poorly written anti-virus
   program reporting a false positive, or because a virus on
   your system has infected your copy of MaraDNS/Deadwood.

   Please use GPG to verify that the file which your scanner
   reports having a virus in has not been altered. In addition,
   please scan the file with AVG (free for non-commercial use)
   to verify your virus scanner has not reported a false
   positive.

   If you have verified the GPG signature of the program and AVG
   reports a virus, please let us know with a Github issue.
   Otherwise, please use a better virus scanner and make sure
   there are no viruses on your computer.

50. I can not subscribe to the MaraDNS mailing list

   Please note that the mailing list is no longer used to handle
   MaraDNS support requests. Please file a Github issue at
   https://github.com/samboy/MaraDNS/issues to file a MaraDNS
   bug report.

   The procedure for subscribing to the mailing list is as
   follows:
     * Send an email to list-request@maradns.org with
       "Subscribe" as the subject, or an email to
       list-subscribe@maradns.org
     * You will get an email from list-request@maradns.org
       asking you to confirm your subscription. This can be done
       by replying to the message, or, more simply, by clicking
       on the link in the message.
     * Once you click on that link, click on the button marked
       "subscribe to list list"
     * You will now get a message stating 'Welcome to the "list"
       mailing list'.
     * Note that the mailing list is moderated and only relevant
       MaraDNS announcements are approved. People who need help
       should read the manuals or search the MaraDNS webpage for
       support.

   If you get an email from list-request@maradns.org with the
   subject "The results of your email commands", you did not
   correctly send an email to list-request@maradns.org with the
   subject "Subscribe".

   If you do not get the email from list-request@maradns.org
   asking you for a confirmation, ensure that this email is not
   in your "spam" or "junk mail" folder. If you are unable to
   get these emails at your email address, please get a gmail
   email account, which can successfully subscribe to the
   MaraDNS mailing list. Note that subscription confirmation
   emails may be in Gmail's "promotions" tab.

51. How does MaraDNS respond to EDNS (RFC2671) packets?

   MaraDNS 2 (both the authoritative maradns server and the
   recursive Deadwood server) responds to EDNS packets by
   ignoring the OPT record and acting as if it the packet did
   not have an OPT record.

   MicroDNS (available in the tools/misc directory of any
   MaraDNS 2 release) responds to EDNS queries the same way
   Deadwood 2.9.03 did: By giving back "NOTIMPL" instead of
   answering the query with the default IP. NanoDNS, in the
   interest of minimizing code side, responds to EDNS requests
   by returning NOTIMPL in the header, giving the OPT query in
   the AN section of the response, and giving the default IP in
   the AR section of the DNS reply packet.

52. How to I get MaraDNS to always give the same IP to all DNS
queries?

   There are three ways to have MaraDNS always give the same IP
   in reply to any DNS query given to it:
     * The best way to do this is to set up a default zonefile
       that causes any and all A queries to always give the IP
       (and also allows all AAAA queries to always give out the
       same IP6, all SPF or TXT queries to give out the same SPF
       record, etc.).
     * Another possibility, if someone just wants a simple DNS
       server that always gives out the same IP address to any
       and all DNS queries, is to use the MicroDNS program,
       available in tools/misc, as well as having its own web
       page.
     * If MicroDNS is too bloated, there is also NanoDNS, which
       I will include the source code of below:

/*Placed in the public domain by Sam Trenholme*/
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdint.h>
#define Z struct sockaddr
#define Y sizeof(d)
int main(int a,char **b){uint32_t i;char q
,p="\xc0\f\0\x01\0\x01\0\0\0\0\0\x04";if(a>
1){struct sockaddr_in d;socklen_t f=511;bzero(&
d,Y);a=socket(AF_INET,SOCK_DGRAM,0);*((uint32_t
*)(p+12))=inet_addr(b);d.sin_family=AF_INET;
d.sin_port=htons(53);bind(a,(Z*)&d,Y);for(;;){i
=recvfrom(a,q,255,0,(Z*)&d,&f);if(i>9&&q>=0)
{q|=128;q?q|=4:1;q++;memcpy(q+i,p,
16);sendto(a,q,i+16,0,(Z*)&d,Y);}}}return 0;}

   NanoDNS takes one argument: The IP we return. This program
   binds to all IP addresses a given machine has on the UDP DNS
   port (port 53). For example, to make a DNS server that binds
   to all IPs your system has and return the IP 10.11.12.13 to
   any UDP DNS queries sent to it, compile the above C program,
   call it NanoDNS, and invoke it with NanoDNS 10.11.12.13 Note
   that NanoDNS does not daemonize, nor log anything, nor have
   any other space-wasting features.

Why did you change MaraDNS' tagline?

   I have changed MaraDNS' tagline from "MaraDNS: A
   security-aware DNS server" to "MaraDNS: A small open-source
   DNS server" because MaraDNS does not support DNSSEC. I have
   blogged about this:

     http://samiam.org/blog/20120326.html

How do you stop MaraDNS from taking part in a distributed
denial-of-service attack?

   While I do not have time to implement rate limiting, CentOS 6
   does support response rate limiting at the firewall level.
   The following iptables commands allow a given IP to only send
   MaraDNS/Deadwood 20 DNS queries every four seconds:

   iptables -A INPUT -p udp --dport 53 -m state --state NEW -m
   recent --set --name DDOS --rsource

   iptables -A INPUT -p udp --dport 53 -m state --state NEW -m
   recent --update --seconds 4 --hitcount 20 --name DDOS
   --rsource -j DROP

   To verify they are applied:

   iptables --list

   To save these commands in CentOS so they are applied at
   system boot time:

   iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables

   Disclaimer

   These incantations work in CentOS 6 but may or may not work
   in other versions of Linux. I do not support non-CentOS6
   Linux installs of MaraDNS.

What about DNS-over-TCP?

   For people who want DNS-over-TCP, instructions are in the
   DNS-over-TCP tutorial. Note that Windows users will have to
   use Cygwin to have DNS-over-TCP.

   However, DNS-over-TCP is not necessary. DNS-over-TCP is
   optional as per section 6.1.3.2 of RFC1123; any program or
   web service that considers no DNS-over-TCP an error is not
   RFC-compliant.

   Not having DNS-over-TCP is more secure, because it gives
   attackers a smaller surface to attack.

How do I use MaraDNS with systemd?

   While I like systemd, it is not part of CentOS 6 nor,
   obviously, Windows 7. That in mind, I have no plans to
   support systemd until 2017, when I plan to update MaraDNS'
   supported operating systems.

   However, Tomasz Torcz has kindly made some systemd files for
   MaraDNS, which people are free to use.

   As an aside, I do not like the fact that Debian will probably
   not make systemd the default init; I do not think this kind
   of fragmentation is good for Linux.

Why doesn't MaraDNS use IP_FREEBIND?

   IP_FREEBIND is a non-POSIX Linux-specific extension to
   POSIX's netinet/in.h, and, as such, has no place in MaraDNS'
   code. MaraDNS strives to use POSIX-compliant calls so that it
   can compile on as many systems as possible.

   When I say that Windows 7 and CentOS 6 are the only supported
   operating systems for MaraDNS, this does not mean that
   MaraDNS will not compile and run on other systems; it merely
   means that I can not provide support for Github bug reports
   for people who want to run MaraDNS in Minix, one of the
   open-source BSD variants, or what not.

Is there a web interface for MaraDNS?

   The Kloxo-MR control panel has MaraDNS support.

What does the message “don’t forget the trailing dot” mean?

   It means to not forget the tailing dot.

   Hostnames in zone files need to be properly terminated; if a
   hostname is in the form “foo.example.com”, this name will not
   parse and return an error with a note to not forget the
   trailing dot.

   To fix this, put a trailing dot at the end of the hostname,
   so it looks like “foo.example.com.” (observe that dot at the
   end) instead of “foo.example.com”

Does MaraDNS support newer top level domains?

   MaraDNS does not impose any limitations on the top level
   domain used in zone files and other places, as is fully
   compatible with newer top level domains like “today.”

   Note that, if using an internationalized domain name, it
   needs to be translated in to Punycode first. For example, if
   using the domain name “ñ.com.”, it needs to be in the form
   “xn--ida.com.” in MaraDNS’ mararc and zone files.

Can MaraDNS handle IDN domain names?

   Yes, but the internationalized domain name (IDN) needs to be
   translated in to Punycode first. For example, if using the
   domain name “ñ.com.”, it needs to be in the form
   “xn--ida.com.” in MaraDNS’ mararc and zone files.