sbm products used for manufacture of cementequipments used for cement manufacturing equipment used in cement manufacturing process.Cement Manufacturing Technologies Cement can be not only hardened in the air,but also better hardened in the water in which it will maintain and develop strength.So cement is kind of cementitious material which will be of stronger hardness in water.Cement mill is used for cement grinding. The Cement Manufacturing Process The overall value of sales of cement was about $8.9 billion,most of which was used to make an estimated $48 billion worth of concrete.Most construction projects involve some form of concrete.There are more than twenty types of cement used to make various specialty concrete,however the most common is Portland cement. Manufacture of Portland cement 2018 1 19 · Chemical composition of Portland cement The raw materials used in the manufacture of Portland cement consist mainly of lime,silica,alumina and iron oxide.These compounds interact with one another in the kiln to form a series of more complex products and,apart from a small residue of uncombined lime which has not had Cement Manufacturing Process Civil Engineering Stage of Cement Manufacture There are six main stages of cement manufacturing process Stage 1 Raw Material Extraction Quarry The raw cement ingredients needed for cement production are limestone (calcium),sand and clay (silicon,aluminum,iron),shale,fly ash,mill scale and bauxite The ore rocks are quarried and crushed to smaller pieces of about 6 inch Rapid Hardening Cement Manufacture,Properties and Uses It is used in industries which manufacture concrete products like slabs,posts,electric poles,block fence,etc.because moulds can be released quickly.It is used for cold weather concreting because rapid evolution of heat during hydration protects the concrete against freezing.Advantages of Rapid Hardening Cement Concrete Products Suppliers & Distributors CEMEX USA Concrete vs.Cement—not the same product.Many people use the terms "concrete" and "cement" interchangeably,but the two are actually different products.Cement is a mineral (Powder) that sets and hardens to bind other materials together.Hydraulic cement,such as Portland Cement,are the most commonly used types.They harden when. Energy efficiency in cement manufacture VDZ Energy efficiency in cement manufacture.Manufacturing cement is highly energyintensive.First,energy is used in the form of fuel to fire the rotary kilns to produce the cement clinker.Second,electrical energy is used to operate various units in particular raw material and cement grinding systems.Today,electrical energy consumption in Waste Materials Used in Concrete Manufacturing 1st Edition Waste Materials Used in Concrete Manufacturing 1st Edition.0.0 star rating Write a review.Authors.Use of Lignin Based Products in Concrete Introduction The Nature and Source of Lignins Lignosulphonates Use of Lignosulphonates in Concrete Effects on Hydration of Cement and Microstructure of Concrete Performance in Concrete Factors. Manufacturing process Lafarge Cement,concrete 2020512&ensp·&enspThe cement manufacturing process starts from the mining of raw materials that are used in cement manufacturing,mainly limestone and clays.A limestone quarry is inside the plant area and a clays quarry is as far from the plant area as 25 km.The limestone is excavated from open cast mines after drilling and blasting and loaded onto dumpers Cement Manufacturing Process 2020 2 25 · Cement in this case is denoted as matrix while sand is termed as adulterant.We know Cement has good binding properties while there are other binding materials are also available,but cement is mostly used because of its high strength and water resisting properties.It is used to create a strong bond between bricks,stones in a masonry. Safety and Health Topics Concrete and Concrete Products, Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials in the world Safety issues exist in all phases of concrete production,including the manufacture of portland cement and pre cast concrete products,as well as during the use of concrete in construction This page was developed with. Coal & cement World Coal Association Coal & cement Varying the mix of cement,sand and aggregate enables concrete to be used in a range of applications.Products can be designed,coloured and shaped to accommodate a variety of environmental conditions,architectural requirements and to … Cement Properties,Composition,Manufacturing and … 2020 2 25 · Manufacture of cement.Calcareous materials such as limestone and chalk and argillaceous materials such as shale or clay are used as the raw materials for the manufacture of cement.The location of the cement factories are selected based on the availability of the these raw materials. Cement Products CalPortland We take pride in the fact that we produce and distribute high quality cement products that are used on projects with common applications to projects demanding the highest degree of quality,technical precision and performance From our state of the art cement production facilities,we manufacture products using only high quality raw materials. Cement Products Manufacturing Cement Products Mfg are manufacturing specialists of Masonry and Hardscape Products Owned and operated locally for over 30 years,we have a large selection of cement mixes,concrete mixes,flagstones,grout,stone accessories,firebrick,concrete masonry units,manufactured stones,mortar mixes,sand and more What is the manufacturing process of cement? Quora Hi,Following three distinct operations are involved in the manufacturing of normal setting or Portland ordinary cement: 1.Mixing of raw materials 2.Burning 3.Grinding MIXING OF RAW MATERIALS The raw materials such as limestone or chalk and sha 11.6 Portland Cement Manufacturing 11.6 Portland Cement Manufacturing 11.6.1 Process Description 7 Portland cement is a fine powder,gray or white in color.More than 30 raw materials are known to be used in the manufacture of portland cement,and these materials can be divided into four. (PDF) Cement Manufacturing ResearchGate Some limestone which is high grade could more profitably be used as paper filler than for the manufacture of cement.Tests were performed to examine the characteristics of the pulverizing system. Manufacturing process Home : Lafarge Cement Recycled materials in cement In 2006,the cements manufactured by Lafarge had an average additive content of 23% These additives were of natural origin,such as limestone and volcanic rock,or industrial origin,for example blast furnace slag (a steel industry by, Standard Specifiion for Processing Additions for Use in 1.Scope.1.1 This specifiion pertains to the criteria and tests to be used for determining whether a(n) organic or inorganic processing addition,when used in the recommended amount at the option of the cement producer in the manufacture of hydraulic cements,meets the requirements as prescribed by definition in Specifiions C150,C1157,C845,and C595. Awesome Latest Technology Casting Cement Fastest, May 08,2018· Awesome Latest Technology Casting Cement Fastest Manufacture of Concrete Products Thanks for watching,subscribe & share! Subscribe to channel: https: w. cement Definition,Composition,Manufacture,History, Concrete is used for a large variety of constructional purpos Mixtures of soil and portland cement are used as a base for roads Portland cement also is used in the manufacture of bricks,tiles,shingles,pipes,beams,railroad ties,and various extruded products The products are prefabricated in factories and supplied ready for installation How to start a cement manufacturing factory Ghana.Ghana is located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in West Africa.Spanning a land mass of 238 535km 2,Ghana is a multicultural nation,with a population of approximately 27 million with a variety of ethnic,linguistic and religious groups.Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical jungles,wh Asbestos Manufacturers Asbestos Companies,Suppliers, Manufacturers first incorporated asbestos insulation into steam engines,piping and locomotiv Thousands of other uses later emerged,and asbestos manufacturers began putting it in products such as boilers,gaskets,cement,roofing materials and automotive brake pads Asbestos Companies Valued Profit over Safety Products CTS Cement Easy to use,just add water Mortar Mix is a fast setting,high strength structural repair material Apply Mortar Mix from 1 2" to 6"' thick Use for vertical and overhead applications,including general and structural concrete repair,construction of pavements,stucco and plaster repair,underlayments and formed work Conforms to: ASTM C387,C928 How is fiber cement board manufacture Fiber cement board are composed of cement,silica sand and wood pulp.Reinforced fiber cement products such as fiber cement board are manufactured using the ‘Hatscheck Process’.The Hatsheck process was initially developed for the production of asbestos composites,but it is now used for the manufacture of non asbestos,cellulose fiber reinforced cement composites. How to manufacture cement? YouTube May 02,2016 · Cement is a fine powder that is obtained by heating a mixture of limestone,clay,and other substances until reaching very high temperatures. Cement > About Cement > Cement Manufacture 1.Raw materials The main raw materials used in cement manufacture are limestone,shale,clay,sand and iron ore.These natural materials are extracted from mines and transported to the cement plant,where they are blended to manufacture the required cement quality. recast concrete tility structure Manufacturing issues,if any,associated with its use.The manufacture of concrete products may involve the use of hazardous materials,operations and equipment.It is the user's responsibility to determine appropriate safety,health and environmental practices and applicable regulatory requirements associated with the use of this manual and the Alphabetical List of Products QUIKRETE: Cement and, The QUIKRETE® Companies are the largest manufacturers of packaged concrete in the United States and an innovative leader in the commercial building and home improvement industri Toggle navigation For Homeowners,Subscribe now to get updates on products. Coal & cement World Coal Association Coal & cement Varying the mix of cement,sand and aggregate enables concrete to be used in a range of applications.Products can be designed,coloured and shaped to accommodate a variety of environmental conditions,architectural requirements and to. About Cement Cement is the glue that binds aggregates together to form concrete one of the key construction materials in use today.Concrete is the most consumed material on earth,second only to water,with three tonnes per year used for every person.Twice as much concrete is used in construction as all other building materials combined. Safety and Health Topics Concrete and Concrete Products. Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials in the world.Safety issues exist in all phases of concrete production,including the manufacture of portland cement and pre cast concrete products,as well as during the use of concrete in construction.This page was developed with. types and manufacturing of cement SlideShare Jan 28,2017· Manufacturing Process of Cement: • Quarry • Grinding • Burning • Grinding • Storage • Packing • Dispatch 20 THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS 1 BLASTING : The raw materials that are used to manufacture cement (mainly limestone and clay) are blasted from the quarry Quarry face 1 BLASTING 2 TRANSPORT 3 Cement Manufacturing Process: What is Cement made of. Cement manufacturing process & what is cement made of,it can be discussed conveniently under two headings: Selection of Raw materials and manufacturing methods.Raw Materials of Cement.Most important raw materials (what is cement made of) required in the manufacture of Portland Cement are: Limestone,Clay,Gypsum,Fuel,and Water (in wet method). How Cement Is Made Cement is so fine that 1 pound of cement contains 150 billion grains.The cement is now ready for transport to readymix concrete companies to be used in a variety of construction projects.Although the dry process is the most modern and popular way to manufacture cement,some kilns in the United States use a wet process. The Cement Manufacturing Process Advancing Mining Accurate cement production also depends on belt scale systems to monitor output and inventory or regulate product loadout,as well as tramp metal detectors to protect equipment and keep the operation running smoothly The Cement Manufacturing Process flow chart sums up where in the process each type of technology is making a difference NOTE: How Are Fiber Cement Panels Created? ArchDaily Several factories in Switzerland,Austria,Germany,and Slovenia manufacture Swisspearl fiber cement products.Marco Ziethen,head of production technology,guides me through the plant in. Cement >About Cement >Cement Manufacture 1Raw materials The main raw materials used in cement manufacture are limestone,shale,clay,sand and iron ore These natural materials are extracted from mines and transported to the cement plant,where they are blended to manufacture the required cement quality Cement: Materials and manufacturing process A number of by products from other industries can be blended with Portland Cement (CEM I) which can improve performance but also increase the recycled content and reduce the ECO2 content of the concrete.The use of these secondary materials utilises material which might otherwise be disposed in landfill.Read MORE about cement substitutes. 7169323560: Input component Period Value 2009 96.2 2010 100.0 2011 102.9 2012 101.5 2013 104.3 2014 102.3 2015 100.2 2016 107.4 2017 112.4 2018 114.5 2011 Q1 103.6 2011 Q2 101.7 2011 Q3 103.5 2011 Q4 102.8 2012 Q1 102.2 2012 Q2 101.4 2012 Q3 100.8 2012 Q4 101.5 2013 Q1 What Is the Cement Manufacturing Process? (with … 2020 2 24 · The cement manufacturing process involves several key steps,including preparing the raw materials,grinding the materials together,heating the newly formed clinker in a kiln,and finishing the cement with fine grinding.Some of the main ingredients used to make cement include limestone,clay. China Cement,Cement Manufacturers,Suppliers,Price. China Cement manufacturers Select 2020 high quality Cement products in best price from certified Chinese Building Material manufacturers,China Concrete suppliers,wholesalers and. Fibre cement Fibre cement is a composite building and construction material,used mainly in roofing and facade products because of its strength and durability.One common use is in fiber cement siding on buildings.Material description The term "cement" originates from the Latin word "Caementum",which signifies chopped stone. Waste Materials Used in Concrete Manufacturing 1st Edition Waste Materials Used in Concrete Manufacturing 1st Edition 00 star rating Write a review Authors,Use of Lignin Based Products in Concrete Introduction The Nature and Source of Lignins Lignosulphonates Use of Lignosulphonates in Concrete Effects on Hydration of Cement and Microstructure of Concrete Performance in Concrete Factors. A Listing of Asbestos Products by Manufacturing Company Asbestos Products By Company Following is a sampling of some of the asbestos containing products manufactured or distributed by companies for use in the American marketplace.This list is not all inclusive. Cement Manufacturing Process: What is Cement … 2020 2 23 · Cement is most commonly stored after its manufacture in specially designed concrete storage tanks called SILOS,where from it is drawn off mechanically for the market.For cement packing,cloth,jute,and high density Polythene (HDPE) bags are commonly used.For convenience,the cement comes to the customer in bags containing measured quantity. cement Definition,Composition,Manufacture,History. Concrete is used for a large variety of constructional purposes.Mixtures of soil and portland cement are used as a base for roads.Portland cement also is used in the manufacture of bricks,tiles,shingles,pipes,beams,railroad ties,and various extruded products.The products are prefabricated in factories and supplied ready for installation. Cement : Manufacture,Chemical Composition,Heat of Hydration Chemical Composition of Portland Cement The raw materials used for the manufacture of cement consist mainly of lime,silica,alumina and iron oxide.These oxides interact with one another in the kiln at high temperature to form more complex compounds OBERFIELDS Ohio's Premier Concrete Products Manufacturer. We manufacture all of our product lines within central Ohio with sales locations in Columbus and Delaware.Outside of this area,we are proud to partner with a qualified network of distributors throughout Ohio,Indiana,Pittsburgh and West Virginia.We are proud to manufacture quality products including residential block,architectural block,concrete pavers,retaining walls,and precast items. cement Definition,Composition,Manufacture,History,& … Cement,in general,adhesive substances of all kinds,but,in a narrower sense,the binding materials used in building and civil engineering construction.Cements of this kind are finely ground powders that,when mixed with water,set to a hard mass.Learn more about cement in this article. types and manufacturing of cement SlideShare Jan 28,2017 · Manufacturing Process of Cement: • Quarry • Grinding • Burning • Grinding • Storage • Packing • Dispatch 20.THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING PROCESS 1.BLASTING : The raw materials that are used to manufacture cement (mainly limestone and clay) are blasted from the quarry.Quarry face 1.BLASTING 2.TRANSPORT 3. products Kuwait Cement Company It is also used in the manufacture of all types of cement products such as cement pipes,precast (readymade walls),cement and curbstone blocks,all types of tiles and in the manufacture of adhesives materials used in construction.* Characteristics: It achieves high compression ratio compared to other types of cement. Manufacture and properties of fluoride cement manufacture of fluoride cement Hence,the properties and characteristics reported in this study relate to the cement currently manufactured in Malawi,and,on a comparative basis only,to that manufactured in other parts of the world Samples of the fluoride cement used in the study were obtained by synthetic manufacture of the cement using common Wood,Stone,Concrete Manufacturing Businesses for Sale, Utah based manufacturer and installer of concrete products used in commercial construction projects in Utah and Colorado The company was founded in 2010 and is currently operating at 50% capacity , Top 19 Cement brands in the world Top Cement Companies Jun 13,2018 · Huaxin Cement Company was founded in the year 1907 and headquartered in China.This company manufactures and markets various cement products.Apart from manufacturing of cement,it also provides services that are related to cement,installation,and maintenance of equipment that is used for cement production. How asphalt cement is made substance hardens to a consistency similar to regular asphalt cement.Air Blowing 5 If the asphalt is to be used for a purpose other than paving,such as roofing,pipe coating,or as an undersealant or water proofing material,the asphalt may be oxidized,or air blown. Manufacture of Portland Cement There are various types of cement used in concrete construction.Each type of cement has its own properties,uses and advantages based on composition materials used during its manufacture.1.Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) Ordinary Portland cement is the. 7169323560: Input component 7169323560: Input component Imported products used in Manufacture of Cement 7169323560: Input component Imported products used in Manufacture of Cement Source dataset: Producer price inflation time series (PPI) Contact: Martina Portanti.Release date: 13 November 2019 View previous versions. Cement Manufacturing Process Civil Engineering Stage of Cement Manufacture.There are six main stages of cement manufacturing process.Stage 1 Raw Material Extraction Quarry.The raw cement ingredients needed for cement production are limestone (calcium),sand and clay (silicon,aluminum,iron),shale,fly ash,mill scale and bauxite.The ore rocks are quarried and crushed to smaller pieces of about 6 inches. Armcon Providing Moulds for Precast Concrete Industry Products Consumables Pigments,release agents and spacers etc Everything a precast works needs on a daily basis Drainage Moulds for heavy to weak water flow,ideally used with our paving range Equipment Concrete mixers,Vibrating tables and Concrete Blocks,all the hardware needed to produce your precast concrete Coal & cement World Coal Association Coal & cement Varying the mix of cement,sand and aggregate enables concrete to be used in a range of applications Products can be designed,coloured and shaped to accommodate a variety of environmental conditions,architectural requirements and to, Cement Products Cement Industry in India Types of Products Cement: Ramco Supercrete: Ramco Supercrete is a specially formulated blended cement manufactured as per IS 1489 which has been used to make High Performance Concrete.This cement is the culmination of R& D efforts,our experience of supplying cement Rapid Hardening Cement Manufacture,Properties and Uses It is used in industries which manufacture concrete products like slabs,posts,electric poles,block fence,etc because moulds can be released quickly It is used for cold weather concreting because rapid evolution of heat during hydration protects the concrete against freezing Advantages of Rapid Hardening Cement Cement Wikipedia Manufacturing costs were therefore considerably higher,but the product set reasonably slowly and developed strength quickly,thus opening up a market for use in concrete.The use of concrete in construction grew rapidly from 1850 onward,and was soon the dominant use for cements.Thus Portland cement began its predominant role. Products Moderate Sulphate Resistant Cement (MSRC) mainly for use where concrete comes in contact with soil containing moderate sulphate content.Our MSRC conforms to ASTM C150 Type II Cement.Portland Limestone Cement (PLC) an inter ground clinker with limestone to manufacture cement similar to OPC which is mainly used for finishing. Bioglycerol use in cement manufacture • Aggregate … The manufacture of cement is one of the most environmentally impacting of mankind’s activities.The cement fabrication process requires heating the cement components (i.e.limestone,clay,sand,etc.) at no less than 1600 oC for the “clinker” mixture to be cement Definition,Composition,Manufacture,History Concrete is used for a large variety of constructional purposes.Mixtures of soil and portland cement are used as a base for roads.Portland cement also is used in the manufacture of bricks,tiles,shingles,pipes,beams,railroad ties,and various extruded products.The products are prefabried in factories and supplied ready for installation. Cement,concrete & the circular economy THE STORY OF CEMENT & CONCRETE MANUFACTURE What is cement? Cement is a fine,soft,powdery type substance,mainly used to bind sand and aggregates together to make concrete.Cement is a glue,acting as a hydraulic binder,i.e.it hardens when Products cementorg Ready Mixed Concrete accounts for nearly three fourths of all concrete used annually Roller Compacted Concrete: Initially developed for use by the forestry industry in Canada,roller compacted concrete is a durable paving and dam material that is placed using asphalt construction equipment Soil Cement: Developed in 1935,this product is often. (PDF) Cement Manufacturing ResearchGate Some limestone which is high grade could more profitably be used as paper filler than for the manufacture of cement.Tests were performed to examine the characteristics of the pulverizing system. Manufacture process of cement These minerals are used in different form as per the availability of the minerals.Table shows the raw materials for Portland cement manufacture The mixing procedure of the manufacture of cement is done in 2 methods,Dry process Wet process 6. 7 Best Brands of Fiber Cement Siding for Your Home If you have never heard of Nichiha fiber cement siding,you are not alone.Founded in the mid 1950s,this diversified Japanese company has been quietly producing fiber cement siding products for years,mainly for commercial properties.Your nearest restaurant,bank,theater,or grocery store just might be sided with Nichiha fiber cement board. Cement Products https: Fly ash cement was first used in the U.S.in 1929 for the Hoover Dam,where engineers found that it allowed for less total cement.Although fly ash cement itself is less dense than portland cement,the produced concrete is denser and results in a smoother surface with. How Cement Is Made Cement is so fine that 1 pound of cement contains 150 billion grains.The cement is now ready for transport to ready mix concrete companies to be used in a variety of construction projects.Although the dry process is the most modern and popular way to manufacture cement,some kilns in the United States use a wet process. China Cement Machinery manufacturer,Cement Plant,Cement Jiangsu Pengfei Group is one of the largest cement equipments Manufacturer in China with 1000 workers,500,000 square meter Machining workshop and more than 50 years experience in cement Industry.Our group has been equipments supplier to FLSmidth and Polysius for more than 3 years.And we have got certifies from ISO,CE and SGS. Concrete Industry Water Use Studied Fluence Mar 02,2018 · The authors described the scale of the industry's water use: [.] Concrete production is responsible for consuming [16.6 km 3] of water annually (based on 2012 concrete consumption values),equal to the annual domestic use of 145 million residents of the. Cement :: Products & Services :: Doing Business with Us Cement is produced using carefully selected raw materials (Limestone,Sand,Clay,Bauxite and Iron Ore) and,with an strict quality control throughout each stage of productive process,ensures that a consistent final product is achieved for the different types of cement in bulk and bags: OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement),SRC (Sulphate Resistance Cement) and Blended Cements. SIC 3272 Concrete products,nec Establishments primarily engaged in manufacturing concrete products,except block and brick,from a combination of cement and aggregate Snapshot SIC Code 3272 Concrete Products,except Block and Brick is a final level code of the “Manufacturing” Division There are 2,796 companies classified in this industry in the USA with an estimated. Puget Sound Precast Concrete Redi Rock WA Concrete, Puget Sound Precast manufactures concrete products for residential and commercial use We carry a wide product line including stairs,manholes,catch basins,light pole bases,sign blocks,retaining walls,curbs,trash receptacles,picnic tables,benches,planters,and more We specialize in architectural and custom precast concrete products Manufacturing Concrete Roof Tiles Eagle Roofing May 02,2017 · For centuries,concrete roof tiles have been one of the most popular sloped roofing products due to their unsurpassed beauty and durability.Before modern technology,these tiles were made primarily by hand,or by semi hand operated machines.Now,the process has transformed into a strategic,mechanical method that has enabled concrete roof tile manufacturing plants. Masonry Products and Properties Masonry Products Modern masonry products include portland cement plaster (stucco),cements for masonry,mortars,concrete block,and clay brick.These materials can be used on the interior or exterior of structures in a wide range of environments. 7 Best Brands of Fiber Cement Siding for Your Home As a result,the fiber cement siding playing field is small and competition is limited Still,a few of the best fiber cement brands and manufacturers can be singled out for the quality of their products and their attention to customers' needs Cement Manufacturing Process: What is Cement made of Cement manufacturing process & what is cement made of,it can be discussed conveniently under two headings: Selection of Raw materials and manufacturing methods Raw Materials of Cement Most important raw materials (what is cement made of) required in the manufacture of Portland Cement are: Limestone,Clay,Gypsum,Fuel,and Water (in wet method) Research Cement & Concrete Product Manufacturing. Companies in this industry manufacture cement,ready mix concrete,and concrete products such as blocks,pipes,bricks,walls,and girders.Major companies include Ash Grove Cement Company,Martin Marietta Materials,US Concrete,and Vulcan Materials (all based in the US),as well as Anhui Conch (China),Cemex (Mexico),CRH (Ireland. How concrete is made material,manufacture,making,how, In addition,concrete contains a wide range of chemicals that imbue it with the characteristics desired for specific applications Portland cement,the kind most often used in concrete,is made from a combination of a calcareous material (usually limestone) and of silica and alumina found as clay or shale Products ACPL Features: OPC is used in general and major construction projects as well as in manufacture of concrete products.It can be used in concretes,mortars,grouts & premix concrete,where chemical attack … Calcium carbonate Essential Chemical Industry 2020514&ensp·&enspLarge lumps of calcium carbonate are often used where sizeable quantities of aggregate are needed,for example for the foundations of roads.Lime is often used to make soil firmer.It reacts with clay minerals in the soil to form cementlike compounds (for example calcium silie and calcium aluminate (calcium aluminosilie)),Figure 2. Manufacturing process Home : Lafarge 2020 2 22 · Recycled materials in cement.In 2006,the cements manufactured by Lafarge had an average additive content of 23%.These additives were of natural origin,such as limestone and volcanic rock,or industrial origin,for example blast furnace slag (a steel industry by product) or fly ash (from coal fired power plants).