sbm colorado promontory survey mining claimClarence Patented mining claim colorado Colorado mining claim for sale.Oyama patented mining claim.Located in the San Juan Mountains near Silverton and Animas forks.Pristine high country beauty. A primer on mining claims.Patented and unpatented claims. A mining claim patent however does not always include all of the lands within the boundaries of the claim.These exceptions to the patent should be spelled out in the Patent document,and may be indicated on the Mineral Survey Plat.For instance,in an extreme example,a patent of a 10 acre claim might only convey to the Patentee a few acres or. colorado parcels,land,mining claims,Silverton,Lake. colorado parcels,land,unique properties,american west,mining claims,colorado ranch,land for sale,investment opportunities,financing options,Silverton Lake City Ouray.San Juan Mountains Colorado.Parcel Name or Area some links have numerous listings.LOCATION: SIZE acre + minerals BLM CO Mining Claims Active (MapServer) Subject: Active mining claim records extracted from BLM's LR2000 database and displayed in a GIS format on a quarterly basis with a layer to display density.Keywords: minerals,DOI,Energy,Bureau of Land Management,mining,LR2000,geoscientificInformation,Colorado,Department of the Interior,environment,utilitiesCommunication,Geospatial,Active. Search BLM GLO Records Click the Search Surveys button.You will be switched to the "Search Results" page.You can get a brief description of what each field means by hovering your mouse over it.You can get more detailed information by checking the Glossary in the Reference Center.For more tips and help,check out our Survey Search Overview. Clarence Patented mining claim colorado 1881 Colorado mining claim for sale.Oyama patented mining claim.Located in the San Juan Mountains near Silverton and Animas forks.Pristine high country beauty. Colorado 2020 2 5 · Colorado (pronounced i k ɒ l ə ˈ r æ d oʊ )  is a U.S.state that encompasses much of the Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.Colorado is part of the Western United States and the Mountain States.The state was named for the Colorado River,which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the. AES HOME Division of Professions and Occupations Colorado The State Board of Licensure for Architects,Professional Engineers and Professional Land Surveyors regulates and licenses architects,professional engineers and professional land surveyors.The Board's mission is to safeguard life,health,and property and to promote public welfare. Foreword 2020 1 28 · Mining Law have been met.A mining claim is a selected parcel of federal land,valuable due to a specific mineral deposit or deposits,for which one has asserted a right of possession under the Mining Law.Rights are restricted to the development and extraction of a mineral deposit.The rights granted by a mining claim protect against Forms Colorado Department of Labor and Employment This form is the final statement by the insurer of the amount of benefits to be paid in a workers' compensation case.If there is no objection to the final admission by the claimant within the prescribed time frame,the admission becomes final and the claim is closed. Mining Claims Bureau of Land Management 2020 3 1 · MINING CLAIMSA mining claim is a parcel of land for which the claimant has asserted a right of possession and the right to develop and extract a discovered,valuable,mineral deposit.This right does not include exclusive surface rights (see Public Law 84 167).There are three basic types of minerals on federally administered lands: locatable,leasable,and salable. Homesites & Mining Claims For Sale Broken Arrow Ranch. Your go to real estate experts in Creede and Del Norte,Colorado! Homes,cabins,mining claims,horse ranches,farm land,commercial real estate,and vacant parcels.Also. Mining In Colorado The Diggings™: Free Mining Claim. Colorado has 297,990 mining claims on public land listed in The Diggings™.Of these claims,4.53% are active while 95.47% are now closed.Gunnison,Montrose,and San Miguel are the most active counties in Colorado. How to locate your own placer mining claim in … Now on the right,you’ll see Mining Claims.Click it and then below it click your state.Zoom in on the map to find your specific area of interest.Click all the Colorado Land Status boxes on the right and then click the refresh button on the map control bar (on the right edge of the map…NOT up top in browser controls). How to Find Gold Claims Jan 13,2014 · Using the BLM LR2000 database to research if a particular piece of land has gold claims,both active and closed.Also a brief overview of using the PLSS mapping system in. Ouray County,Colorado Mining Claims The Diggings™ 128 active mining claims.706 closed mining claims.Uranium,Two Or More Minerals,and All Minerals mines located in Ouray County,Colorado.Listing claims … Cheyenne Mining District (St.Peters Dome Mining District. This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org.This does not claim to be a complete list.If you know of more minerals from this site,please register so you can add to our database.This locality information is for reference purposes only. Colorado Mines Western Mining History About the MRDS Mines Database: All mine locations were obtained from the USGS Mineral Resources Data System.The locations and other information in this database have not been verified for accuracy. Minerals Program Task Info permit id: mine name: company name: s0490096 : zolman holdings small mine : s0130020 : wrinkles : s0410042 : willow creek salt : s0390046 : willow creek salt 2. Pub MC Claim Name Number Index Report Bureau of Land. Your session has expired and any further actions on open reports will fail.Use the button below to refresh your session and continue. MINING CLAIM PROCEDURES MINING CLAIM PROCEDURES NEVADA BUREAU OF MINES AND GEOLOGY Mackay School of Mines Fifth Edition.rectangular survey 43 6.Sample certificate of location for a placer mining claim not located by aliquot part of.University of Colorado,Boulder,(the main source of the legal references given in the text) is an excellent reference Mining Claim Activity on Federal Land in the United States What's New.The Public Land spatial data sets (shapefile) contains Public Land Survey section polygons that had mining claims recorded in the U.S.Bureau of Land Management's LR2000 database as of December 31,2010 (from a March 1,2011 data extraction) for the period from 1976 to 2010 in Arizona,Arkansas,California,Colorado,Florida,Idaho,Montana,Nebraska,New Mexico,Nevada,North. Colorado : definition of Colorado and synonyms of … The repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act in 1893 led to a staggering collapse of the mining and agricultural economy of Colorado,but the state slowly and steadily recovered.Colorado became the first western state to host a major political convention when the Democratic Party met in Denver in 1908. What Is A Mining Claim,Legally? Mine Engineer.Com PATENTED MINING CLAIM: A patented mining claim is one for which the Federal Government has passed its title to the claimant,making it private land.A person may mine and remove minerals from a mining claim without a mineral patent.However,a mineral patent gives the owner exclusive title to the locateble minerals. Download [PDF] Ghost Towns Of Colorado Free This book includes the story of 240 Colorado's mining camps,with emphasis on the human side.Their story is full of adventurous chances,lucky strikes,boom conditions,reckless spending,banditry,claim jumping,railroad wars and labor troubles. The Alpine Loop: High density history in Colorado The Alpine Loop: High density history in Colorado.By Daniel J.Schneider Posted: May 9.was the first patented mining claim in Hinsdale County.Lake City grew up around supporting the mine,though early miners lived in the town of Henson next to the mill.The view from the sparsely treed promontory was spectacular and the hillside was. Land Grants and Mineral Rights under the Pacific … 2015 7 1 · The usual size of a mining claim in the quartz region is 100 feet on the line of the lode or vein,and 100 feet on each side,equal to an area of 20,000 square feet or say 1,200 claims to the square mile.Allow that only one hundredth part of the mountain surface in occupied by paying leads or veins and there will be space for 3,600,000 claims. Colorado Mines For Sale MineListings Project Commodities; Sacramento Creek Gold Mine.Turnkey placer mining operation for sale located near the town of Fairplay,Colorado.Featured in season 7 on the Discovery TV show "Gold Rush",the mine produced 1,100oz of gold f. Monadnock Mineral Services,L.L.C Land Surveying. Monadnock Mineral Services,L.L.C.is a professional,local,family business serving the San Juan Mountains of Colorado for over 40 years.Started in Ouray,Colorado in 1972 as mining and geological consultants,later adding professional land surveying. Mining Claims Arizona,Colorado,Texas,Oregon,Nevada. Mining Claims.Purchasing a Patented Mining Claim provides the same benefits as any other privately held real estate property owner.In historic mining towns it is not uncommon for much of the property in the area to be patented mining claims. Colorado 2019 12 24 · Template:About Template:Pp move indef Template:Pp protected Template:Use mdy dates Script error Script error Template:Infobox U.S.state symbols Template:Maplink Colorado Penny's poetry pages Wiki Fandom 2018 6 10 · Colorado ( kɒləˈrædoʊ ) (in Spanish means colored,red) is a U.S.state that encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.Colorado is part of the Western United States,the Southwestern. Colorado Ultimate Pop Culture Wiki Fandom 2020 2 12 · Colorado (Listen ˌkɒləˈrædoʊ[unsupported input] ˈrɑːdoʊ ,other variants) is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.It is the 8th largest geographically and 21st most populous U.S.state.The estimated population of Colorado was. Land for sale in Colorado Page 65 of 282 Lands of … Colorado ranks among the country's ten largest states in terms of size,covering an area of 104,100 square miles (67 million acres).In total,103,642 square miles is land,while the remaining 452 square miles is made up of water.Game species to be found on land for sale in Colorado include mule deer,elk,bear,turkey,and grouse. Silverton Land Patented Mining Claims For Sale by Owner The patented mining claims on this site are listed for sale by their owners.These claims are private property,with all the rights of private property.Unless otherwise noted,all patented claims contain both surface and mineral rights. Colorado Bureau of Land Management 2020 2 28 · Colorado's Locatable Minerals program has 10,380 active mining claims,31 authorized mining plans of operations,and 33 authorized exploration notices for gold,silver,uranium,and other uncommon minerals.Federal Unpatented Mining Claims or Sites are located to extract federally owned locatable minerals. The Ins and Outs of Patented and Unpatented Mining Claims Patented claims exist in perpetuity.However,an unpatented claim owner can also hold the claim as long as he likes for an annual 155 assessment fee (county fees and taxes for patented mining. Locating a Mining Claim Bureau of Land Management LOCATING A MINING CLAIMWhere Can a Claim be Located?There are Federally administered lands in 19 states where you may locate a mining claim or site.These states are Alaska,Arizona,Arkansas,California,Colorado,Florida,Idaho,Louisiana,Mississippi,Montana,Nebraska,Nevada,New Mexico,North Dakota,Oregon,South Dakota,Utah,Washington,and Wyoming. Mining Claim Fees Bureau of Land Management Mining Claim FeesFEES NEW CLAIMS LOCATED BEFORE SEPTEMBER 1,2019Claim TypeDOCUMENT NEEDEDDATE DUEPER CLAIM FEE Lode Claims,Mill Sites,and Tunnel SitesNotice of Location&nb Mining Claim Fees Bureau of Land Management Central City Mining District (Central Mining District. Central City Mining District (Central Mining District),Gilpin Co.Colorado,USA : Au,Ag,Cu,Pb. Rectangular Survey System 2011 10 10 · survey before sale was necessary to prevent overlapping claims and to simplify deeds and registering.A rectangular system would survey all the land,with no gaps or gores,make the buyer take the poor land along with the good land,and make every … How do I find out where I can stake a mining claim 2011 12 7 · How do I find out where and how to stake a mining claim? Much of the Federal public lands are open to mineral entry meaning a claim can be staked on them.Wilderness areas,wild portions of Wild and Scenic Rivers,National Monuments,National Parks,and.Public lands are located according to the Public Land Survey System (PLSS) often. www.csms1936.com 2017 9 27 · Staking a Claim on Federal Lands Information Bulletin No.43 76 1976 Suggestions for Prospecting U.S.Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management U.S.Department of the Interior Geological Survey The Tillodonta: An Early Tertiary Order of Mammals Smithsonian Institution C.Lewis Gazin Colorado Mining Laws with Safety Rules and Regulations COLORADO REVISED STATUTES Jul 01,2013 · Survey Plats and Monument Records General Provisions.Article 51.professional land surveying in Colorado is hereby declared to be subject to regulation.It shall be.and intent of this part 2 if the individual engages therein or,by oral claim,sign,letterhead,or card or Placer Gold Claims Gold Mining Claims for Sale Placer. Placer claims are located by legal subdivision.The maximum size of a placer claim is 20 acres.As established by the U.S.Public Land Survey,a 20 acre mine claim is 1 32 of a square mile and comprises an area 660 ft.by 1320 ft.and is described as part of a section (1 sq.mile) in a certain township and range for a particular meridian.The. 40 acres,Jefferson,CO,Property ID: 2323398 Land and Farm A Quit Claim deed is the required legal document per the BLM.Each year,on or before September 1st,you need to file a form with the Bureau of Land Management,along with 310.By doing this,you keep the claim forever.There are no taxes on mining claims in Park County.Need 2 names on your deed. grand Canyon Each year Grand Canyon National Park receives approximately 30,000 requests for backcountry permits.The park issues 13,000 permits,and close to 40,000 people camp overnight.Viewing the canyon Lipan Point is a promontory located on the South Rim.This point is located to the east of the Grand Canyon Village along the Desert View Drive. Colorado Gold Maps Gold Claims Colorado's 14,515 active gold claims represent about 3.3% of all active gold claims in the lower 48 states.When you first open the California gold map you will see a satellite view of the state boundaries with yellow and orange clusters throughout. What Is A Mining Claim,Legally? PATENTED MINING CLAIM: A patented mining claim is one for which the Federal Government has passed its title to the claimant,making it private land.A person may mine and remove minerals from a mining claim without a mineral patent.However,a mineral patent gives the owner exclusive title to the locateble minerals. Professional Land Surveyors of Colorado PLSC Scott is a charter member and has served as President,Vice President,and Director of the Western Colorado Land Surveyors chapter of the PLSC.He also served as Chairman of the Colorado State Board of Registration for Professional Engineers and Professional Land Surveyor's Survey. Mining Claim Surveys Mining Claim surveys can be complicated to retrace.Overlapping claims,physically demanding conditions,complicated research,and very old or even absent monumentation are typical.But at Zenith Land Surveying,we take on these challenges with pride and vigor.Extensive and detailed research is a necessary aspect of any mining claim retracement to determine the nature … Colorado part of "new gold rush" for rare earth metals. Colorado Geological Survey director Vince Matthews says mining for rare earth and other exotic metals could infuse states with severance tax revenues and jobs,while lessening U.S.dependence on. Inactive and Abandoned Noncoal Mines.Volume 2.… A report from the 1960's indicated approximately 35,000 mining claims have been patented in the State.~ Joe Nugent Colorado Geological Survey The Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) continues to update mineral resource information for the State.A copy of the U.S.Geological Survey's Mineral Resource Data System is available at CGS. The 4 Things to Know BEFORE you Buy a Mining Claim. May 18,2016 · Buying a mining claim is a right that is granted to any citizen of the United States,and there are many good claims out there that you can buy and find gold on.The purpose of this article is to point out that just because the land is claimed,there is no guarantee that there is actually any gold there. Understanding Claim Ownership News From The Diggings Jul 11,2015 · Discover current,past,and potential mining activity around the globe on The Diggings—the largest free online resource of mining activity.We combine mining deposit data with Bureau of Land Management (BLM) claim listings to compare where known deposits of gold,silver,copper,and other mineable resources are located alongside where mining activity is (and is not). National Timeline Bureau of Land Management 2020 2 22 · National HistoryWith historical roots dating back to the earliest days of the nation,the BLM administers the lands that remain from America's original "public domain." Created in 1946 through a government reorganization during the Truman Administration,the BLM is the successor to the General Land Office (established in 1812) and the U.S.Grazing Service (originally called Gold Rush Expeditions Mining Claims for Sale Gold Rush. Since 2004 Documented Mining Claims for Sale Lode Mining Claims Placer Mining Claims Patented Mining Claims Technical Mining Reports Mining Consultation.Gold Rush Expeditions,Inc.We find 'em,you mine 'em! Servicing miners and mining companies with high quality mining properties since 2004.A trusted American company. Colorado Revised Statutes 2016 TITLE 34 Mining Legislative Declaration and Definitions 34 20 101.Legislative declaration.The general assembly hereby finds and declares that the extraction of mineral resources is a necessary and proper activity and that the achievement of safe Colorado Revised Statutes 2016 4 Uncertified Printout About Russell Surveyors & Associates Inc.Alamosa Land. Dan has worked in the land surveying field for over 30 years,actively involved in all aspects of surveying,including large and small scale boundary surveys,topographic,architectural and right of way surveys,ALTA,improvement and mortgage surveys,underground (mining),patented mining claim retracement,claim staking,subdivision design,layout,construction staking and GPS control surveys. Mining Claims Bureau of Land Management MINING CLAIMSA mining claim is a parcel of land for which the claimant has asserted a right of possession and the right to develop and extract a discovered,valuable,mineral deposit.This right does not include exclusive surface rights (see Public Law 84 167).There are three basic types of minerals on federally administered lands: locatable,leasable,and salable. Timeline of mining in Colorado Wikipedia Timeline of mining in Colorado.DuPont Corporation has purchased property,staked claims,and acquired mineral rights at Iron Hill,which Bradley S.Van Gosen of the US Geological Survey says it is believed to be "the largest known resources of titanium and niobium in the United States." SILVER REEF Silver Reef's Chinatown had a Chinese mayor and several businesses. By 1879,Silver Reef's population had reached 2,000,and the town also had a horse race track,a brewery,and a brass band. Shooting matches among members of the Silver Reef Rifle Club and sometimes residents of nearby towns took place on the horse race track. Mining In Colorado The Diggings™ Colorado has 297,779 records of mining claims on public land managed by the Bureau of Land Management and 11,555 records of mines listed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS).Mining Claim News From The Diggings™.Public Land Survey System,and mining claims. Mining Claim Forms The Gold Prospector Nov 20,2010 · Mining claim fees are due on or before September 1 each year.The initial cost per mining claim (load or placer) is 140 + 35 location fee.The annual cost is 140 per mining claim (load or placer).The process of staking a new mining claim.In the 2010 assessment year,my friend Josh and I went out looking for gold in known gold bearing areas. Colorado Mines Mining Artifacts Erie,Colorado claims the first mining labor union in Colorado,which was the Knights of Labor,Local No.771,established in 1878.The Knights of Labor opposed the creation of the National Federation of Miners and Mine Laborers during the 1880s.The first strike was called in 1885 by the Knights of Labor. Colorado part of "new gold rush" for rare earth metals. Colorado part of "new gold rush" for rare earth metals.to explore several staked claims."We're going to raise the money and try to develop it.".to mining,Colorado Geological. 英语国家社会与文化知识要点汇总 百度文库 英语国家社会与文化知识要点汇总 2202人阅读 1212次下载 英语国家社会与文化知识要点汇总。英国的社会与文化概括 Interactive map of mines in Colorado American. The Colorado Division of Reclamation Mining and Safety's AUGER map provides information on active and historic mines in Colorado.The interactive map shows: Active and inactive construction and hardrock mines with information on permitting,size,commodities,fees,land use,and more Coal permit boundaries Alluvial and bedrock aquifers Geology Hydrography Land cover Users can click on. 'I!! 2006 4 24 · Osoyoos Mining Division.The survey was completed in a Cherokee 6 300 fixed wing.consists of some 60 contiguous mining claims listed as follows: Claim Name Claim Numbers Apia 1 12 incl.Sig 1 11 incl.Dan 1 8 incl.Sun 1 & 2.small promontory on … LAWS AND REGULATIONS AZ * now consolidated into the Arizona Geological Survey Mining Laws and Regulations,Changes and Revisions Circular 104,August,2003,Revised July,2014 Rev.16 Recent statutory and regulatory changes that affect Federal mining claims have made portions of Are We Losing the Grand Canyon? (He drowned in the Colorado,along with two members of his survey expedition.) In the 1950s a mining company tried to get rich by building a giant cableway to move bat guano from a cave and sell. Kurt J.Hoffman Mining Services Mining Claims,Mining. Application for Survey of Mining Claim Form3860 005 0 (pdf) Download.Mining Claim Requirements by State.Claim guides by State.There are 19 States in which mining claims can be located on Federal Land.The 1872 Mining Law gives individual States the option to establish their own claim requirements.Colorado BLM Mining Packet (pdf. LR2000 Reference Codes BLM Reporting Application LR2000 Reference Codes.Please read the Introduction to the LR2000 System before you begin.Also see LR2000 Reports Tutorial.To run the LR2000 reports you will need to use the following codes.Some of the reports require you to select a code rather than the name as your selection criteria. Mining Claims Maps Welcome to Land Matters Pick a Mining Claims Map from the Green highlighted list below.The map will open in a new Map window or will replace the map you are currently viewing if you already have a map open The Great Race to Promontory Today,Promontory Summit is the home of the Golden Spike National Historic Monument.In 1870,this original junction point for Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads was moved to nearby Ogden.Promontory became primarily a helper station,housing mostly railroad workers and their families.See all Golden Spike community events Land Surveying Geology Mining. Mining Consultants is a professional,local,family business serving the San Juan Mountains of Colorado for over 40 years.Started in Ouray,Colorado in 1972 as mining and geological consultants,later adding professional land surveying. Land Matters Maps A click for information on a Land Matters Map will return a results window that provides access to a wide variety of data; a list of active mining claims,the particulars regarding the Land Status of an area,a link to the appropriate County Recorders office,a Master Title Plat or a list of detailed geological maps available for the area. minerals BLM CO Mining Claims Active (MapServer) The new feature is not a representation of the mining claim boundaries.Multiple mining claims may be located within the same area.(The density layer is used to illustrate this.) The resulting GIS dataset has been projected to NAD83 UTM13N and dissolved on case level attributes.Map Name: BLM Colorado Active Mining Claims Legend All Layers and. Mining Claims Bureau of Land Management MINING CLAIMS.A mining claim is a parcel of land for which the claimant has asserted a right of possession and the right to develop and extract a discovered,valuable,mineral deposit.This right does not include exclusive surface rights (see Public Law 84 167). Understanding Location Data News From The Diggings Jan 04,2015 · Claims handled by the Bureau of Land Management are not mapped by latitude and longitude,as many maps now use.Instead,many of these claims harken back to an older form of surveying called the Public Land Survey System (PLSS),a measurement system that may seem confusing to the uninitiated,but was a great step forward. Boulder County,Colorado Mines Western Mining History Western Mining History is your source for over 116,000 mines in the western states. Mining claim activity on Federal Land in the United States. The Public Land spatial data sets (shapefile) contains Public Land Survey section polygons that had mining claims recorded in the U.S.Bureau of Land Management's LR2000 database as of December 31,2010 (from a March 1,2011 data extraction) for the period from 1976 to 2010 in Arizona,Arkansas,California,Colorado,Florida,Idaho,Montana,Nebraska,New Mexico,Nevada,North Dakota. 40 acre Colorado Gold Mining Claim Land And Farm 40 acre Colorado Gold Mining Claim,40 acres in Jefferson,Colorado offered at 4,950.View 25 photos,read details,and contact the seller. Mine Tales: Gold mining in Mohave County had its … 2014 7 2 · The San Francisco Mining district,whose claim to.Mine Tales: Gold mining in Mohave County had its ups and downs.Gold discovered by soldiers stationed at Camp Mohave near the Colorado. Boulder County,Colorado Mines About the MRDS Mines Database: All mine locations were obtained from the USGS Mineral Resources Data System.The locations and other information in this database have not been verified for accuracy. How to Stake a Mining Claim on Federal Land in 8 Simple. Apr 29,2017 · The law in the United States allows you to stake a mining claim on some federal lands throughout the country.Federal lands where you can stake a claim are located in 19 states.These states are Alaska,Montana,Utah,Arizona,Arkansas,Nebraska,South Dakota,California,Nevada,Oregon,Colorado,New Mexico,Florida,Idaho,North Dakota. Grubstaker LLC Gold Mining Claims For Sale Mining. To check out our gold,silver or crystal claims for sale,mining services,maps,click on the buttons to the left.Note: We do not offer surveying services.The mining laws permit the prospector and miner to make reasonable use of a mining claim as long as the use is incident and necessary to prospecting,mining and processing operations under. Land colorado mining claim Trovit Land colorado mining claim.1 25 of 53 land for sale.X.x.Receive the latest home listings by email.Receive new listings by email colorado mining claim.Letter of ability to build from Boulder county.Flat building site! Survey available.350,000.Report.View property.3.H.Homes 30+ days ago.Tbd Cr 110 Silverton,CO 81433 81433. About Russell Surveyors & Associates Inc.Alamosa Land. Tony is a Professional Land Surveyor with over 12 years of land surveying and construction staking experience.His experience is by no means limited to the retracement of both patented and non patented mining claims,single and multi family housing developments,construction staking,road staking,annexations,ALTA ACSM and topographic surveys.