436d56c6f2c1a381672c13f48885c3003f245a12 — JoJo 2 months ago c7fa524 master
update TODO
1 files changed, 164 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)

M TODO.org
M TODO.org => TODO.org +164 -0
@@ 329,6 329,8 @@ Features and other stuff to do/implement in/around Carth.
           a : as -> Just (a, as)


** Type families, Haskell
   #+BEGIN_SRC haskell
   class Iter c where

@@ 716,6 718,147 @@ Features and other stuff to do/implement in/around Carth.

  This sounds really good! Single definition generation without
  expensive boxing! Monomorphization as an optimization!

  Value Witness Table in Swift seems to contain:
  - Size
  - Alignment
  - Copy constructor
  - Move constructor
  - Destructor

  If this was rust, .clone() would be an explicit call and a move
  wouldn't call any constructor or destructor, so the only things
  contained would be:

  - Size
  - Alignment
  - Destructor (Drop)

  We don't even have Drop yet, so the WVT only has to contain the
  type's size and alignment. Not much of a table heh...

  We'll have to do some kind of dictionary passing for the classes
  Cast, Num, Bitwise, and Ord I think.

  So for a polymorphic function, generate a single function that takes
  a reference to the value, a VWT (size, alignment), and dictionaries
  for any class constraints. In the generated code, use the VWT to get
  the size for when we need to allocate memory for the type, or
  memcpy. I'm thinking we won't need to though, right? Since it's
  already on the stack since it's behind a reference, we don't need
  the size for ~alloca~, and we only do store/load after a gep when
  indexing into the type, right? And that will only be done in
  monomorphic functions I believe.

  We must have what Swift calls "Metadata Patterns" as well. Say we
  have ~(define: (twice a) (Fun a [a . a]) (car (id [a . a])))~. We
  only pass the VWT of ~a~ to ~twice~, but we must also pass the VWT
  of ~(Pair a a)~ to ~id~, as well as the offset of the second element
  of the pair to ~car~. The second VWT and the rest of the metadata
  about the datatype must be constructed at runtime. So for every
  parametric datatype, we must generate a function that takes a VWT
  for each datatype parameter, and returns a /type metadata/
  value. The type metadata, beyond the VWT of the datatype, must also
  contain the offsets of each struct member.

  Metadata pattern example in Swift:

  metadata pattern for Pair<T>   
  - first: T
  - second: T
  - value witness table

  metadata for Pair<Bool>
  - T: Bool
  - first: offset 0
  - second: offset 1
  - value witness table

  metadata for Pair<Int>
  - T: Int
  - first: offset 0
  - second: offset 4
  - value witness table

  Generic member access in Swift:

  - Example:
    #+BEGIN_SRC swift
    func getSecond<T>(_ pair: Pair<T>) -> T {
        return pair.second
  - Implementation:
    #+BEGIN_SRC c
    void getSecond(opaque *result, opaque *pair, type *T) {
        type *PairOfT = get_generic_metadata(&Pair_pattern, T);
        const opaque *second =
            (pair + PairOfT->fields[1]);
        T->vwt->copy_init(result, second, T);
        PairOfT->vwt->destroy(pair, PairOfT);

  More things to consider when HOF:s are involved! https://youtu.be/ctS8FzqcRug?t=776

  Consider the case of a HOF accepting a monomorphic function. Something like:

  #+BEGIN_SRC carth
  (define: (apply f a)
      (forall (a) (Fun (Fun a a)
    (f a))

  Apply is a higher order function, and the type of the parameter ~f~
  is polymorphic (not higher ranked though). Therefore, in the lowered
  ~apply~, the lowered type of ~f~ will be something like
      void (*)(opaque *ret, opaque *arg, void *ctxt)
  What if we now have a simple, monomorphic function like ~neg~, of
  higher type ~(Fun Int Int)~. In the high domain, ~(Fun Int Int)~ is
  compatible with ~(Fun a a)~, but in the low domain,
      Int (*)(Int arg, void *ctxt)
  is not compatible with
      void (*)(opaque *ret, opaque *arg, void *ctxt)

  We thus need to generate an abstracting wrapper around concrete
  functions when passing them to a function that takes a non-concrete
  function as argument.

  Swift uses the terminology "Abstraction Patterns". "One formal type,
  many lowered representations". "Introduce thunks to translate
  between representations". To pass a concrete function as an abstract
  argument, they use what they call a "re-abstraction thunk". "We need
  to re-abstract the closure value, to match the abstraciton pattern
  of the function parameter. We do this using a thunk".

  The method itself is very obvious.

  Int closure(Int a) {
      return a + 1;

  void thunk(Int *ret, Int *arg, void *thunk_ctxt) {
      Int (*fn_invoke)(Int, void*) = thunk_ctxt->...;
      void *fn_context = thunk_ctxt->...;
      ,*ret = fn_invoke(*arg, fn_context);
  void *thunk_ctxt =allocate(..., closure, NULL);

  apply(..., thunk, thunk_ctxt, ...);

* NEXT Add separate pass before Codegen to compile SrcPos:s
  I think it could be done purely and independently from rest of codegen. Would be more clean.
* NEXT Refactor & document Codegen & Gen

@@ 1312,3 1455,24 @@ Features and other stuff to do/implement in/around Carth.
  Either in Carth directly, or via a DSL or something. Some method of
  doing flattening and parallelisation like Futhark? Compile to OpenGL
  & Vulkan maybe.

* NEXT Write c compiler i carth
  Look at tutorials. There are many minimal c compilers. tinycc(?) is one, IIRC.

  At first, just a fun exercise. Seeing how well Carth fares at such a
  task. Discovering new bugs & limitations of the compiler. Coming up
  with new features.

  In the future, may be integrated in a self-hosted Carth compiler for
  C header parsing support, or even full-on C source library
  support. Kind of like Zig.

* NEXT Sugar for lambdas
  Look at [[https://clojure.org/guides/learn/functions#_anonymous_function_syntax][Clojure's reader shorthand for anonymous functions]].

  It's basically De Brujin notation. So ~(fn [a b] (* 5 (+ a b)))~ can
  also be written ~#(* 5 (+ %1 %2))~. That's convenient! If one
  instead does good point-free compositioning, like ~(<oo (* 5) +)~,
  the sugar is "unneccesary", but it really is quite concise and
  readable. Might be nice to have.