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66ce50a7Ngô Ngọc Đức Huy Update 9 months ago

#Parts of speech


#Nominal phrases

  1. Head noun
  2. Totality
  3. Quantifier/Number
  4. Classifier
  5. Attributive modifiers
  6. Demonstrative
  7. Prepositional phrase



Neutral pronouns are similar to how they are in English. It is however mainly used in formal speech or formal writing. Using it on an one-on-one conversation implies either unfriendliness or distance.

Person Pronoun
1st hwa
2nd ti
3rd nu

Neutral pronouns can be pluralized by numerals and quantifiers as if they are nouns. Note that first plural personal pronoun is always exclusive.


Gendered pronouns are chiefly used among people who are equal and close to one another, but not blood-related.

Person Male Female Male (intimate) Female (intimate)
1st min dwi na
2nd hon hja san kun
3rd hàn ba njan

Note: "intimate" pronouns are used between lovers.

There is no gender-neutral pronouns in this category. Nonbinary people usually pick the one they're most comfortable with or invent neopronouns, though that meets several criticism from many linguistic purists. Another option for them is to use kinship pronouns, which include gender-neutral pronouns for sibling (though, not age-neutral).


There are not many non-familial hierarchies in Zì community, but the contrast in such relationships is showed clearly via pronouns. These pronouns lack third person pronoun. Hierarchical pronouns comes in pair, with one in the higher position and one in the lower:

  • chieftain (kjá) - denizen (tò)
  • teacher (se) - student (him)
  • leader (zi) - follower (him)

One can be in several of these relationships at once. For example, one of the denizen can be the chieftain's teacher, in which case each party uses the lower pronoun for oneself and the higher for the other.


  • great-grandparent: sjà
  • grandfather: fu
  • grandmother: bu
  • father: ba
    • father's elder brother: fa
      • father's elder brother's wife: nàn
    • father's elder sister: bǎ
      • father's elder sister's husband: gon
    • father's younger sibling: hju
      • father's younger sibling's spouse: tin
  • mother: ma
    • mother's elder brother: fá
      • mother's elder brother's wife: nàn
    • mother's elder sister: zǐ
      • mother's elder sister's husband: gon
    • mother's younger sibling: vǎ
      • mother's younger sibling's spouse: mjé
  • elder brother: kje
  • elder sister: dje
  • younger sibling: nen
  • child: sǔn
  • niece/nephew: swá
  • grandchild: gun
  • great-grandchild: ngi


  • Pronoun for parents' spouses who are not biological parents are the same as parents
  • Pronoun for parent's elder brother's husband is lacked because homosexual relationships weren't acknowledged before, but he would use the same pronoun as the parent's elder brother. Likewise, the parent's elder sister's wife also use the same pronoun as her wife.
  • Pronouns for father's elder brother, mother's elder sister, father's younger sibling, mother's younger sibling




  • human: ngan
    • respectful: nga
    • derogatory: ngǐ
    • diminutive: ngí
  • animal: man
    • four-legged: khú
    • winged: tǐ
  • plant: ci
    • flower: khje
    • fruit-like (fruit, ball, egg): khwi
  • thing: kí
    • book-like (dictionary, newspaper): hin
    • blade-like (knife, scissor, sword): zé
    • street-like (river, stream): lwin
    • yard-like (pond, lake): son
    • very large (sky, ocean, forest): lon
    • house-like: ngwo
    • clothes: bù
  • food: bá
  • abstract: tjen
  • phenomenon: mwan

#Numerals and Quantifiers


DjanZi numerals is biquinary.

To refer to number zero (0), one use the negation particle khan.

Number DjanZi
1 khì
2 fwo
3 sa
6 nǎ khì
7 nǎ fwo
8 nǎ sa
9 nǎ bǔ
10 ljá
11 ljá khì
12 ljá fwo
13 ljá sa
14 ljá bǔ
15 ljá nǎ
16 ljá nǎ khì
17 ljá nǎ fwo
18 ljá nǎ sa
19 ljá nǎ bǔ
20 fwo lja
1000 hwèn
1048 hwèn khan sǎ bǔ lja nǎ sa

10000 is a very big number already. In daily speech this number is synonymous with infinity. The next big word is cwé, 1000000000000 (trillion) if you really insist.


  • several, few: ní
  • many: fjè
  • plenty: mǎ mǎ
  • all: khǎ


  • in, at
  • on, above
  • under, below
  • to
  • from
  • with
  • of
  • between


Conjunctions are words that connects two phrases to form some logical connection between them. Two conjunctions in a pair can switch place. Ones inside the parentheses in the below list can be omitted.

  • because… so…
  • though… but…
  • (either)… or…
  • (neither)… nor…
  • (both)… and…
  • … in order to…


  • imperative mood:
  • interrogative mood:
  • possibility:
  • acceptability:
  • certainty:
  • uncertainty:
  • admiration:
  • pity:


Adverbial particles indicates tenses and aspects.

  • future:
  • past:
  • continuous:
  • perfective:
  • perfect: