A => .gitignore
A => book.toml
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authors = ["Ngô Ngọc Đức Huy"]
language = "en"
multilingual = false
src = "src"
title = "DjanZi Grammar"
A => src/SUMMARY.md
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- [Parts of speech](./pos.md)
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DjanZì is an analytic language, spoken by Zi people.
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# (Derivational) Morphology
DjanZì is an analytic language, close to isolating. That means, DjanZì does
not have grammatical morphemes to denote gender, case, tense, or number.
However, it does have independent morphemes that can be used to derive new
Semantic reduplication is reduplication where two words with similar meanings
make up a compound. This often makes:
- generalization in case of nouns and verbs
- intensity increment in case of adjectives
Semantic reduplication is reduplication where two words with similar
pronunciation make up a compound. This often:
- decreases intensity in case of adjectives
- denotes repetition in case of verbs
- denotes entirety in case of nouns
- in case of kinship vocabulary, reduplication denotes endearment
A => src/phono.md
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| | labial | alveolar | palatal | velar/uvular | glottal |
| nasal | m | n | ɲ (nh) | ŋ (ng) | |
| plosive | p b | t d | c | k g | |
| fricative | f v | s z | | x (kh) | h |
| approx. | w | | j | | |
| liquid | | l | | | |
- Consonants are often labialized before /w/ and palatalized before /j/
- /nj/ is also sometimes realized as [ɲ] or [ɲj]
- /j/ is realized as [i] after /h/ and /c/
- Likewise, /w/ is realized as [u] after /h/, and other labial consonants
| | front | central | back |
| close | i y | | u |
| close-mid | e | ə (e) | o |
| open-mid | ɛ̃ (e) | | ɔ̃ (o) |
| open | | a | |
- /e/ is realized as [ɛ̃] when nasalized and [ə] when preceded by /j/
- /o/ is realized as [ɔ̃] when nasalized
There are five tones:
- mid level : a
- low : à
- falling  or : â
- high : á
- rising : ǎ
All syllables in DianZì follows C(W)V(N)T pattern, where:
- C is a consonant
- W is either /w/ or /j/ or /y/
- V is a vowel
- N is the vowel nasalization marker
- T is a tone
/w/ cannot precedes /u/ and /j/ not /i/
There are thus 3910 possible syllables.
DjanZì is often written in CamelCase to disambiguate cases like /ng/ vs /ŋ/.
Hyphenation is also often used as DjanZì words are often not too long, in which
case capitalization is only mandatory for proper noun component.
J and W can be romanized as I and U for aesthetics, as there is no ambiguity
there. Nasalization is often denoted with N, but sometimes also with NG.
Following spellings are thus all valid for *DjanZì*:
- djang Zì
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# Parts of speech
### Nominal phrases
1. Head noun
5. Attributive modifiers
7. Prepositional phrase
Neutral pronouns are similar to how they are in English. It is however mainly
used in formal speech or formal writing. Using it on an one-on-one
conversation implies either unfriendliness or distance.
| Person | Pronoun |
| 1st | hwa |
| 2nd | ti |
| 3rd | nu |
Neutral pronouns can be pluralized by numerals and quantifiers as if they are
nouns. Note that first plural personal pronoun is always exclusive.
Gendered pronouns are chiefly used among people who are equal and close to one
another, but not blood-related.
| Person | Male | Female | Male (intimate) | Female (intimate)|
| 1st | min | dwi | na | mì |
| 2nd | hon | hja | san | kun |
| 3rd | hàn | mù | ba | njan |
Note: "intimate" pronouns are used between lovers.
There is no gender-neutral pronouns in this category. Nonbinary people usually
pick the one they're most comfortable with or invent neopronouns, though that
meets several criticism from many linguistic purists. Another option for them
is to use kinship pronouns, which include gender-neutral pronouns for sibling
(though, not age-neutral).
There are not many non-familial hierarchies in Zì community, but the contrast
in such relationships is showed clearly via pronouns. These pronouns lack
third person pronoun.
Hierarchical pronouns comes in pair, with one in the higher position and one in
- chieftain (kjá) - denizen (tò)
- teacher (se) - student (him)
- leader (zi) - follower (him)
One can be in several of these relationships at once.
For example, one of the denizen can be the chieftain's teacher, in which case
each party uses the lower pronoun for oneself and the higher for the other.
- great-grandparent: sjà
- grandfather: fu
- grandmother: bu
- father: ba
- father's elder brother: fa
- father's elder brother's wife: nàn
- father's elder sister: bǎ
- father's elder sister's husband: gon
- father's younger sibling: hju
- father's younger sibling's spouse: tin
- mother: ma
- mother's elder brother: fá
- mother's elder brother's wife: nàn
- mother's elder sister: zǐ
- mother's elder sister's husband: gon
- mother's younger sibling: vǎ
- mother's younger sibling's spouse: mjé
- elder brother: kje
- elder sister: dje
- younger sibling: nen
- child: sǔn
- niece/nephew: swá
- grandchild: gun
- great-grandchild: ngi
- Pronoun for parents' spouses who are not biological parents are the same as
- Pronoun for parent's elder brother's husband is lacked because homosexual
relationships weren't acknowledged before, but he would use the same
pronoun as the parent's elder brother. Likewise, the parent's elder
sister's wife also use the same pronoun as her wife.
- Pronouns for father's elder brother, mother's elder sister, father's younger
sibling, mother's younger sibling
- fruit-like (fruit, ball, egg)
- book-like (dictionary, newspaper)
- blade-like (knife, scissor, sword)
- street-like (river, stream)
- yard-like (pond, lake)
- very large (sky, ocean, forest)
## Numerals and Quantifiers
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Being an analytic language, DjanZi depends heavily on positional syntax.
Phrasal syntaxes are already discussed in the previous section. This
section concerns sentence syntaxes.
## Basic sentence
DjanZi sentences generally follows XSVO order, where X might be topic or an
adverbial phrase (not consisting an SV pair).
Negative particle precedes what it negates.
## Compound sentence
## Dependent clause
A => src/writing.md