~exprez135/taliaferro

ref: ac1278327eb1a6000727ed725be5973407d03f53 taliaferro/public_html/2019/10/2019-10-ethical-microcosm/index.html -rw-r--r-- 17.4 KiB
ac127832 — Nate Ijams Forgot hugo generation 1 year, 4 months ago
                                                                                
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
<!doctype html><html lang=en-us><head profile=http://www.w3.org/2005/10/profile><link rel=icon type=image/ico href=https://thetaliaferrotimes.org/favicon.ico><meta charset=utf-8><meta name=viewport content="width=device-width,initial-scale=1,shrink-to-fit=no"><meta name=generator content="Hugo 0.69.0"><link rel=icon href=/logo-small.png><title>Ethical Considerations In Microcosm Experimentation
|
The Taliaferro Times Online</title><meta name=description content="The official newspaper and creative writing club of Booker T. Washington High School."><meta name=keywords content="Tulsa,The Taliaferro Times,newspaper,BTW,Booker T.,Booker T. Washington High School,School,news,opinion,Oklahoma,creative writing,write,articles,posts"><link href=/css/bootstrap.min.css rel=stylesheet><link href=/css/everything.css rel=stylesheet><script src=/js/darkreader.js></script><script>function darkmode_starting_up(){var savedTheme=localStorage.getItem("dark-mode-storage")||"dark";if(savedTheme==="dark"){DarkReader.enable();}
if(savedTheme==="light"){DarkReader.disable();}}</script><script async type=text/javascript>darkmode_starting_up();</script><link rel=preload href=https://gc.zgo.at/count.js><link rel=preload href=/webfonts/1cXxaUPXBpj2rGoU7C9WiHGA.ttf><link rel=preload href=/webfonts/fa-brands-400.woff2><link rel=preload href=/webfonts/fa-solid-900.woff2></head><body><noscript><style>.jsonly{display:none}</style></noscript><nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-white fixed-top mediumnavigation nav-down jsonly"><div class="container pr-0"><a class=navbar-brand href=https://thetaliaferrotimes.org/><img src=/logo-small.png alt=logo></a>
<button class=navbar-toggler type=button data-toggle=collapse data-target=#navbarMediumish aria-controls=navbarSupportedContent aria-expanded=false aria-label="Toggle navigation">
<span class=navbar-toggler-icon></span></button><div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id=navbarMediumish><ul class="navbar-nav ml-auto"><li class=nav-item><a class=nav-link href=/about/>About</a></li><li class=nav-item><a class=nav-link href=/coronavirus/>Coronavirus</a></li><li class=nav-item><a class=nav-link href=/latest/>Latest Updates</a></li><li class=nav-item><a class=nav-link href=/search/>Search</a></li><li class=nav-item><a class="fas fa-sun nav-link social-icon" aria-hidden=true onclick=darkmode_toggle(); id=dark-mode-toggle title="Toggle Dark Mode" style=cursor:pointer></a></li></ul></div></div></nav><noscript><nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-white fixed-top mediumnavigation nav-down" id=navbarMediumish><div class="container pr-0"><a class=navbar-brand href=https://thetaliaferrotimes.org/><img src=/logo-small.png alt=logo></a><div class=noscript-nav><ul class="navbar-nav-ns ml-auto-ns"><li class=nav-item><a class=nav-link href=/about/>About</a></li><li class=nav-item><a class=nav-link href=/coronavirus/>Coronavirus</a></li><li class=nav-item><a class=nav-link href=/latest/>Latest Updates</a></li><li class=nav-item><a class=nav-link href=/search/>Search</a></li></ul></div></div></nav></noscript><div class=site-content><div class=container><div class=mainheading><h1 class=sitetitle>The Taliaferro Times Online</h1><p class=lead>Where your voice matters.</p></div><meta name=description content="In response to the use of living animals in a school project at Booker
T. Washington High School.
General Conclusions I."><meta name=keywords content="Tulsa,The Taliaferro Times,newspaper,BTW,Booker T.,Booker T. Washington High School,School,news,opinion,Oklahoma,creative writing,write,articles,posts"><div class=main-content><div class=container><div class=row><div class="col-md-2 pl-0"><div class="share sticky-top sticky-top-offset"><script src=/js/mastodon.js></script><p>Share</p><ul><li class="ml-1 mr-1"><a target=_blank href="https://twitter.com/intent/tweet?text=Ethical%20Considerations%20In%20Microcosm%20Experimentation&url=https%3a%2f%2fthetaliaferrotimes.org%2f2019%2f10%2f2019-10-ethical-microcosm%2f" onclick="window.open(this.href,'twitter-share','width=550,height=435');return false;"><i title="Share on Twitter :(" class="fab fa-twitter"></i></a></li><li class="ml-1 mr-1"><a target=_blank href="https://facebook.com/sharer.php?u=https%3a%2f%2fthetaliaferrotimes.org%2f2019%2f10%2f2019-10-ethical-microcosm%2f" onclick="window.open(this.href,'facebook-share','width=550,height=435');return false;"><i title="Share on Facebook :(" class="fab fa-facebook-f"></i></a></li><li class="ml-1 mr-1"><a target=blank_ href="https://www.xing.com/spi/shares/new?url=https%3a%2f%2fthetaliaferrotimes.org%2f2019%2f10%2f2019-10-ethical-microcosm%2f" onclick="window.open(this.href,'xing-share','width=550,height=435');return false;"><i title="Share on Xing :(" class="fab fa-xing"></i></a></li><li class="ml-1 mr-1"><i title="Share on Mastodon :)" style=cursor:pointer class="fab fa-mastodon" onclick=share_mastodon()></i></input></li></ul></div></div><div class="col-md-9 flex-first flex-md-unordered"><div class=mainheading><h1 class=posttitle>Ethical Considerations In Microcosm Experimentation</h1><div class="col-xs-12 col-md-9 col-lg-10 text-center text-md-left md-nopad-left"><span class=author-description>by
<b><a id=author-link href=/author/Nathaniel-Ijams>Nathaniel Ijams</a></b><br><p><i class="far fa-star fa-fw"></i>Nov 1, 2019
<i class="far fa-clock fa-fw"></i>4
min read</p></span></div></div><a href=/2019/10/2019-10-ethical-microcosm/><img class="featured-image img-fluid" src=/uploads/2019/10/timothy-dykes-9QjN7BAnBpY-unsplash.jpg alt="Image of:"></a><div class=article-post><p>In response to the use of living animals in a school project at Booker<br>T. Washington High School.</p><h2 id=general-conclusions><strong>General Conclusions</strong></h2><p><strong>I</strong>. Animals may only be used for research if there is no other way of<br>obtaining the results anticipated from the experiment.</p><p><strong>II</strong>. From the perspective of moral justification, it is insufficient to<br>consider only those alternatives which are practically available at<br>the time of considering animal use.</p><p><strong>III</strong>. The Three Rs ought to be followed to avoid ethical violations:</p><pre><code>I.  Replacement: methods which avoid or replace the use of animals
    in research;
II. Reduction: use of methods that enable researchers to obtain
    comparable levels of information from fewer animals, or to
    obtain more information from the same number of animals;
III.Refinement: use of methods that alleviate or minimise
    potential pain, suffering, or distress, and enhance animal
    welfare for the animals used.
</code></pre><p><strong>IV</strong>. Duplication of harmful animal experiments is in<br>principle unacceptable. The term describes cases where there is<br>insufficient scientific justification for the repetition. It occurs<br>primarily when the scientist does not know that another has carried<br>out the experiment or test in question. Otherwise, duplication might<br>be intentional.</p><h2 id=further-review>Further Review</h2><h3 id=introduction>Introduction</h3><p>The International Baccalaureate writes:</p><blockquote><p>Our standards for work in schools should also be more stringent than<br>those of university and research and development committees as we are<br>not carrying out essential, groundbreaking research. Practical work in<br>schools has other purposes such as reinforcing concepts and teaching<br>practical skills and techniques. Even in a practically based extended<br>essay the work will not be fundamental, ground-breaking research.</p></blockquote><p>In this limited situation, the ethical solution is clear. As an<br>educational environment, and in accordance with the ideals of Booker T.<br>Washington High School when it comes to integrity, honesty, and ethical<br>uprightness, all students and teachers with the ability to discourage<br>unjustified experimentation on animals ought to work towards its<br>elimination.</p><h3 id=point-i>Point I</h3><p>Animals may only be used for research if there is no other way of<br>obtaining the results anticipated from the experiment.</p><p>Unfortunately, the results anticipated from this experiment are well<br>known. Anticipated results have been found in countless other similar<br>experiments and through experimentation in this laboratory from previous<br>classes. Thus, there is no justification for the use of animals.</p><h3 id=point-ii>Point II</h3><p>From the perspective of moral justification, it is insufficient to<br>consider only those alternatives which are practically available at the<br>time of considering animal use.</p><p>There are alternatives to this experiment which could be performed to<br>create the same sort of process and learning experience for students in<br>the course. Simply because these might not be feasible at the time, for<br>example due to budgetary constraints, cannot morally be used as<br>justification for the continuation of the animal experimentation.</p><h3 id=point-iii>Point III</h3><p>The Three Rs</p><p>The Three Rs are the primary statement of ethical principle when the use<br>of animals is required. Try to replace them, reduce the number of<br>animals needed, and refine how you use them. In addition, the<br>International Baccalaureate Organization&rsquo;s &ldquo;Guidelines for the use of<br>animals in IB World Schools&rdquo; requires schools to carry out a discussion<br>of the 3Rs.</p><p>The IB writes:</p><blockquote><p>Any investigation involving animals should initially consider the<br>replacement of animals with cells or tissues, plants or computer<br>simulations. If the animal is essential to the investigation refinements<br>to the investigation to alleviate any distress to the animal and a<br>reduction in the numbers of animals involved should be made. Experiments<br>involving animals must be based on observing and measuring aspects of<br>natural animal behaviour. Any experimentation should not result in any<br>cruelty to any animal, vertebrate or invertebrate. Therefore experiments<br>that administer drugs or medicines or <strong>manipulate the environment or<br>diet beyond that which can be regarded as humane</strong> is <strong>unacceptable</strong> in<br>IB schools.<sup id=fnref:1><a href=#fn:1 class=footnote-ref role=doc-noteref>1</a></sup></p></blockquote><p>As an example, instead of having each student do a microcosm experiment,<br>facilitate a class/group project to allow the same conclusions to be<br>made without using more than one animal.</p><h3 id=point-iv>Point IV</h3><p>Duplication</p><p>See Point I.</p><h2 id=notes>Notes</h2><p>Inspiration and ethical grounding for this paper are taken from &ldquo;The<br>Ethics of Research Involving Animals&rdquo;, a study by the Nuffield Council<br>of Bioethics, and the IBO&rsquo;s guidelines on the use of animals in IB<br>schools.</p><p><strong>Citations</strong>:</p><p>International Baccalaureate Organization. &ldquo;Guidelines for the use of<br>animals in IB World Schools&rdquo;. 2015,<br><a href=https://library.tedankara.k12.tr/IB/ee2016/Animal-experimentation_policy.pdf>library.tedankara.k12.tr/IB/ee2016/Animal-experimentation_policy.pdf</a>.</p><p>Nuffield Council of Bioethics. &ldquo;The Ethics of Research Involving<br>Animals&rdquo;. 2005, London,<br><a href=nuffieldbioethics.org/wp-content/uploads/The-ethics-of-research-involving-animals-full-report.pdf>nuffieldbioethics.org/wp-content/uploads/The-ethics-of-research-involving-animals-full-report.pdf</a>.</p><p><strong>Comments</strong>:</p><p>Have a question? Want to make a comment? Disagree?</p><p>E-mail me at <a href=mailto:natei@thetaliaferrotimes.org>natei@thetaliaferrotimes.org</a>.</p><p><strong>Download a PDF</strong>:<br><a href=https://thetaliaferrotimes.org/uploads/2019/10/ethical-microcosm.pdf>Click here!</a></p><section class=footnotes role=doc-endnotes><hr><ol><li id=fn:1 role=doc-endnote><p>Emphasis added. <a href=#fnref:1 class=footnote-backref role=doc-backlink>&#8617;&#xfe0e;</a></p></li></ol></section></div><div class=article-post><div class=post-info><hr class=post-end><ul class=tags><i class="fas fa-tags fa-fw"></i><li><a href=/%20/tags/creative-writing>#creative-writing</a></li></ul><p><i class="fas fa-file-alt fa-fw"></i>750
Words</p><p><i class="fas fa-code-branch fa-fw"></i><a href=https://git.sr.ht/~exprez135/taliaferro/commit/ffa4461a730726ab3635f60bc35d46a24ca0ad5f>ffa4461a</a>
@
2020-01-02</p><p>See more from
Nathaniel Ijams
<a href=/author/Nathaniel-Ijams>here</a>.</p><p>Send feedback and letters to the editor to
<a href=mailto:feedback@thetaliaferrotimes.org>feedback@thetaliaferrotimes.org</a>.</p></div></div><div class="row PageNavigation d-flex justify-content-between font-weight-bold"><a class="d-block col-md-6" href=/2019/10/2019-10-headlines-news/>&#171;
Headlines, News, and Little Thoughts</a>
<a class="d-block col-md-6 text-lg-right" href=/2019/10/2019-10-photography/>October Photography
&#187;</a><div class=clearfix></div></div></div></div></div></div></div><div class="jumbotron fortags"><div class="d-md-flex h-100"><div class="col-md-4 transpdark align-self-center text-center h-100"><div class="d-md-flex align-items-center justify-content-center h-100"><h2 class="d-md-block d-none align-self-center py-1 font-weight-light">Explore <span class="d-none d-md-inline"></span></h2></div></div><div class="col-md-8 p-5 align-self-center text-center"><a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/btw-news>#btw-news</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/column>#column</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/creative-writing>#creative-writing</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/editorial>#editorial</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/event>#event</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/international-news>#international-news</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/interview>#interview</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/local-news>#local-news</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/national-news>#national-news</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/opinion>#opinion</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/other>#other</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/photography>#photography</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/poetry>#poetry</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/report>#report</a>
<a class="mt-1 mb-1" href=/tags/review>#review</a></div></div></div><div class=alertbar><div class="container text-center"><label for=EMAIL><span style=font-family:Righteous>The Taliaferro Times</span>
<span>&nbsp; Never miss a <b>story</b>, subscribe to our newsletter</span></label><form action="https://thetaliaferrotimes.us19.list-manage.com/subscribe/post?u=d26cf2ca72382457545be7bf6&id=47e6abb364" method=post name=mc-embedded-subscribe-form target=_blank novalidate><input type=email placeholder=Email name=EMAIL autocomplete=on required><div style=position:absolute;left:-5000px aria-hidden=true><input type=text name=b_d26cf2ca72382457545be7bf6_47e6abb364 tabindex=-1></div><input type=submit value=Subscribe name=subscribe></form></div></div><section id=social-media-bar class="container text-center"><a class=fa-stack href=https://www.twitter.com/btw_news><i id=social-icon-1x class="fa-stack-1x fab fa-twitter social-icon" aria-hidden=true></i><i class="fas fa-circle fa-stack-2x" id=social-icon-2x></i></a><a class=fa-stack href=https://www.instagram.com/btw_news><i id=social-icon-1x class="fa-stack-1x fab fa-instagram social-icon" aria-hidden=true></i><i class="fas fa-circle fa-stack-2x" id=social-icon-2x></i></a><a class=fa-stack href=https://www.facebook.com/btwnews><i id=social-icon-1x class="fa-stack-1x fab fa-facebook social-icon" aria-hidden=true></i><i class="fas fa-circle fa-stack-2x" id=social-icon-2x></i></a><a class=fa-stack href=https://mastodon.social/@btw_news><i id=social-icon-1x class="fa-stack-1x fab fa-mastodon social-icon" aria-hidden=true></i><i class="fas fa-circle fa-stack-2x" id=social-icon-2x></i></a><a class=fa-stack href=https://gitlab.com/exprez135/taliaferro><i id=social-icon-1x class="fa-stack-1x fab fa-gitlab social-icon" aria-hidden=true></i><i class="fas fa-circle fa-stack-2x" id=social-icon-2x></i></a><a class=fa-stack href=mailto:feedback@thetaliaferrotimes.org><i id=social-icon-1x class="fa-stack-1x fas fa-envelope social-icon" aria-hidden=true></i><i class="fas fa-circle fa-stack-2x" id=social-icon-2x></i></a></section><footer class=footer><div class=container><div class=row><div class="col-md-6 col-sm-6 text-center text-lg-left">&copy;
2018-2020 The Taliaferro Times -
<a href=https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/>CC BY-NC-ND 4.0</a>
-
<a href=/about/#policy-and-guidelines>Editorial Notice</a></div><div class="col-md-6 col-sm-6 text-center text-lg-right"><a href=https://git.sr.ht/~exprez135/taliaferro/-/raw/master/COPYING.txt>Copyright Notices</a>
-
<a href=/privacy-policy>Privacy</a>
-
<a target=_blank rel=noopener href=https://git.sr.ht/~exprez135/taliaferro>Source</a>
-
<a target=_blank rel=noopener href=https://wordpress.thetaliaferrotimes.org>Old Website</a><noscript><p>JavaScript is disabled on your machine. We use javascript to: enable our darkmode feature, search the site index when you make a search on our search page, make our menu toggle work on mobile-sized screens, and add some accesibility features.
Without javascript, you should still be able to access most of the site's content. If something appears broken, please contact us by going to our About page.</p></noscript></div></div></div></footer></div><script aysnc=async src=/js/bootstrap.min.js></script><script src=/js/darkmode.js></script><script async type=text/javascript>darkmode_starting_up_2();</script><script data-goatcounter=https://thetaliaferrotimes.goatcounter.com/count async src=//gc.zgo.at/count.js></script><noscript><img src="https://thetaliaferrotimes.goatcounter.com/count?p=/test-img"></noscript></body></html>