; The glossary is a collection of lists
Parsimony : Refers to the quality of economy or frugality in the use of resources.
Occam's Razor : When several theories are able to explain the same observations, Occam's razor suggests the one making the fewest assumptions.
Kolmogorov complexity : The length of the shortest possible program to output a given object.
Kardashev scale : A measure of a civilization's level of technological advancement based on the amount of energy used for communication.
Levenshtein Distance : A string metric for measuring the difference between two sequences, or comparing the similarity of two words.
Bechdel test : A method for evaluating the portrayal of women in fiction. It asks whether a work features at least two women who talk to each other about something other than a man.
Finkbeiner test : A checklist proposed to help journalists avoid gender bias in media articles about women in science.
Ship of Theseus : A thought experiment that raises the question of whether an object that has had all of its components replaced remains fundamentally the same object.
Goodhart’s law : When a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure.
Entropy : Or Irreversibility, a lack of order or predictability, gradual decline into disorder.
False Vacuum : An hypothetical vacuum(space devoid of matter) that is not entirely stable. If a small region of the universe reached a more stable vacuum, this change would spread.
Great Filter : With no evidence of intelligent life other than ourselves, it appears that the process of starting with a star and ending with "advanced explosive lasting life" must be unlikely.
Von Neumann probes : Or Universal Assemblers, A spacecraft capable of replicating itself.
Final anthropic principle : Intelligent information-processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes into existence, will never die out.
Mathematical universe hypothesis : Or Tegmark Universe, our external physical reality is a mathematical structure consisting of starting conditions with rules about how they are to evolve. Any universe that corresponds to a logically coherent mathematical object exists, but universes exist “more”(in some sense) in proportion to their underlying mathematical simplicity.
Liminality : The quality of ambiguity, or disorientation, that occurs during a middle stage, or a threshold. Liminal places can range from borders and frontiers to crossroads and airports, which people pass through but do not live in.
Causality : Relationship between a cause and an effect, where the effect is a direct consequence of the cause.
Eternal Return : A theory that the universe and all existence and energy has been recurring, and will continue to recur, in a self-similar form an infinite number of times across infinite time or space.
Super now : A type of prediction taking things that are happening now and imagining that the future will be just like now, only “more extreme.”
Teleology : The study of things that happen for the sake of their future consequences. The fallacious meaning of it is that events are the result of future events.
Prediction : Statement or claim that a particular event will occur in the future in more certain terms than a forecast.
Equinox : Twice a year, around 20 March and 22 September, when daytime and nighttime are of approximately equal duration all over the planet.
Solstice : Twice a year, when either hemisphere has the most sunlight of the year(summer solstice) or the least sunlight of the year(winter solstice) for any place other than the Equator.
Compressed Air Energy Storage : A way to store energy generated at one time for use at another time using compressed air.
Carbon Fiber Tank : Brittle and can split under sufficient stress, but creates no shrapnel when it does so. Carbon-fiber tanks safely hold air at a pressure somewhere around 4500 psi, making them comparable to steel tanks.
Stirling Engine : A quiet heat engine that is operated by a cyclic compression and expansion and a flywheel, generating no emissions.
The Paris Compressed Air Power Network : The city of Paris once had an extensive network for distributing power by compressed air which served more than 10,000 customers and remained in use for 100 years.
Bicycle With Shaft : Experimental bicyle design that used a shaft connecting the crank to the back wheel instead of a drive chain.
Rectenna : A circuit that produces a voltage by harvesting the energy from the electromagnetic fields around us trough an antenna.
Flettner ship : A rotor ship is a type of ship designed to use a rotor sail mounted with its axis vertical. When the wind blows from the side, the Magnus effect creates a forward thrust.
Magnus Effect : The Magnus effect is a force acting on a spinning body in a moving airstream, which acts perpendicular to both the direction of the airstream and of the rotor axis.
Thermoelectric generator : A device that converts temperature differencesdirectly into electrical energy through a thermoelectric phenomenon called the Seebeck effect.
Gematria : A cipher that assigns numerical value to a word, name, or phrase in the belief that words or phrases with identical numerical values bear some relation to each other.
Palindrome : A word, number, or other sequence of characters which reads the same backward as forward.
Ambigram : A word, art form or other symbolic representation whose elements retain meaning when viewed or interpreted from a different direction, perspective, or orientation.
Leitmotif : A short, constantly recurring musical phrase associated with a particular person, place, or idea.
Derealization : An alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.
Solipsism syndrome : A psychological state in which a person feels that the world is not external to his or her mind.
Qualia : Term used in philosophy to refer to individual instances of subjective, conscious experience. The pain of a headache, or the taste of wine.
Suggestibility : A form of misattribution where ideas suggested by a questioner are mistaken for memory.
Priming : Psychological phenomenon that consists in early stimulus influencing later thoughts and behavior.
Confabulation : Remembering something that never actually happened.
Salience : The perceptual quality by which an observable thing stands out relative to its environment.
Method of loci : A method of memory enhancement which uses visualizations with the use of spatial memory to quickly and efficiently recall information.
Hedonic Treadmill : The tendency of humans to quickly return to a relatively stable level of happiness despite major positive or negative events life changes. As a person makes more money, expectations and desires rise in tandem, which results in no permanent gain in happiness.
Extraversion Introversion : Represents the source and direction of a person’s energy expression. An extravert’s source and direction of energy expression is mainly in the external world, while an introvert has a source of energy mainly in their own internal world.
Sensing Intuition : Represents the method by which someone perceives information. Sensing means that a person mainly believes information they receive directly from the external world. Intuition means that a person believes mainly information they receive from the internal or imaginative world.
Thinking Feeling : Represents how a person processes information. Thinking means that a person makes a decision mainly through logic. Feeling means that, as a rule, they make a decision based on emotion, i.e. based on what they feel they should do.
Judging Perceiving : Represents how a person implements the information they have processed. Judging means that a person organizes all of his life events and, as a rule, sticks to his plans. Perceiving means that they are inclined to improvise and explore alternative options.
Philanthropy : The desire to promote the welfare of others.
Effective Altruism : A philosophy and social movement that uses evidence and reasoning to determine the most effective ways to benefit others.
Utilitarianism : A moral philosophy that says that what matters is the sum of everyone's well-being, or the "greatest good for the greatest number".
Hedonism : A moral philosophy that says that the highest goal is to maximize pleasure(esp. pleasure minus pain), or that the only things that are good or bad are concious states.
Altruism : Actions undertaken for the benefit of other people. Example: If you do something to feel good about helping people, or even to be a better person in some spiritual sense, it isn't truly altruism.
Longtermism : A design philosophy to build products for the long term.
Groupthink : Tendency of humans to tend to agree with each other, and hold back objections or dissent even when the group is wrong.
Actor–observer bias : Tendency to overemphasize the influence of their personality and underemphasize the influence of their situation.
Attentional bias : Tendency to neglect relevant data when making judgments of a correlation or association.
Choice-supportive bias : Tendency to retroactively ascribing to one's choices to be more informed than they were when they were made.
Confirmation bias : Tendency to interpret information in a way that confirms one's preconceptions.
Congruence bias : Tendency to test hypotheses exclusively through direct testing, in contrast to tests of possible alternative hypotheses.
Regressive bias : Tendency to remember high values and high likelihoods/probabilities/frequencies as lower than they actually were and low ones as higher than they actually were. Based on the evidence, memories are not extreme enough.
Egocentric bias : Tendency to claim more responsibility for themselves for the results of a joint action than an outside observer would. Recalling the past in a self-serving manner. Like remembering one's exam grades as being better than they were.
Impact bias : Tendency to overestimate the length or the intensity of the impact of future feeling states.
Information bias : Tendency to seek information even when it cannot affect action.
Modesty bias : Tendency to blame failures on oneself while attributing successes to situational factors, opposite of self-serving bias.
Mood-congruent bias : Tendency to recall information congruent with one's current mood.
Omission bias : Tendency to judge harmful actions as worse, or less moral, than equally harmful omissions.
Self-serving bias : Tendency to attribute successes to internal characteristics while blaming failures on outside forces. It may also manifest itself as a tendency for people to evaluate ambiguous information in a way beneficial to their interests.
Status quo bias : Tendency to like things to stay relatively the same.
Superiority bias : Tendency to overestimating one's desirable qualities, and underestimating undesirable qualities, relative to other people. Also known as the Lake Wobegon effect.
Survivorship bias : Tendency of focusing on what has survived to the present and ignoring what must have been lost.
Trait ascription bias : Tendency for people to view themselves as relatively variable in terms of personality, behavior and mood while viewing others as much more predictable.
Unit bias : Tendency to want to finish a given unit of a task or an item with strong effects on the consumption of food in particular.
Exposure-suspicion bias : Tendency to steer the search for causes based on the knowledge of a subject's disease in a medical study.
Stereotypical bias : Tendency to distort memories towards stereotypes. "Black-sounding" names being misremembered as names of criminals.
Zero-risk bias : Preference for reducing a small risk to zero over a greater reduction in a larger risk.
Authority bias : Tendency to attribute greater accuracy to the opinion of an authority figure and be more influenced by that opinion.
Correspondence bias : Tendency to overestimate the contribution of lasting traits and dispositions, as opposed to situational effects, in determining people's behavior.
Obsequiousness bias : Tendency to alter responses in the direction they perceive desired by the investigator.
Unacceptability bias : Tendency of evading questions that may embarrass or invade privacy.
Projection bias : Tendency to assume that others share the same or similar thoughts, beliefs, values, or positions.
Consistency bias : Tendency to incorrectly remember one's past attitudes and behaviour as resembling present attitudes and behaviour.
Hindsight bias : Tendency to see past events as predictable, based on knowledge of later events. Also known as the "I-knew-it-all-along" effect.
Optimism bias : Tendency to be over-optimistic about the outcome of planned actions.
Outcome bias : Tendency to judge a decision by its eventual outcome instead of based on the quality of the decision at the time it was made.
Positive bias : Tendency to test hypotheses with positive rather than negative examples, thus risking to miss obvious disconfirming tests.
Positive outcome bias : Tendency to overestimate the probability of good things happening to them.
Conformity bias : Tendency to behave similarly to others in a group, even if doing so goes against your own judgment.
Ingroup bias : Tendency to give preferential treatment to others they perceive to be members of their own groups.
Homogeneity bias : Tendency of people to see members of their own group as being relatively more varied than members of other groups.
Shared information bias : Tendency for group members to spend more time and energy discussing information that all members are already familiar with (i.e., shared information), and less time and energy discussing information that only some members are aware of.
Bandwagon fallacy : Assuming that an idea has merit simply because many people believe it or practice it.
Abilene paradox : When a group of people collectively decide on a course of action that is counter to the preferences of many or all of the individuals in the group.
Mind Killing : Refers to a set of techniques by which an entity or a system manipulates people to act in its own interests. It does this by killing their ability to act in their own interests.
Ambiguity effect : Tendency to avoid options for which missing information makes the probability seem "unknown".
Bizarreness effect : Tendency to remember bizarre material better than common material.
Bystander effect : Tendency for individuals to less likely offer help in an emergency situation when other people are present.
Context effect : That cognition and memory are dependent on context, such that out-of-context memories are more difficult to retrieve than in-context memories.
Example : Recall time and accuracy for a work-related memory will be lower at home, and vice versa.
Contrast effect : Enhancement or diminishment of a weight or other measurement when compared with recently observed contrasting object.
Cross-race effect : Tendency for people of one race to have difficulty identifying members of a race other than their own.
Dunning-kruger effect : When people are incompetent in the strategies they adopt to achieve success and satisfaction, they suffer a dual burden, not only do they reach erroneous conclusions and make unfortunate choices, but their incompetence robs them of the ability to realize it. Instead, they are left with the mistaken impression that they are doing just fine.
False consensus effect : Tendency for people to overestimate the degree to which others agree with them.
Forer effect : Tendency to give high accuracy ratings to descriptions of their personality that supposedly are tailored specifically for them, but are in fact vague and general enough to apply to a wide range of people. Also known as the Barnum Effect. Like Horoscopes.
Motivated cognition : Tendency to process information toward conclusions that suit some end or goal.
Generation effect : That self-generated information is remembered best. People are better able to recall memories of statements that they have generated than similar statements generated by others.
Google effect : Tendency to forget information that can be found readily online by using Internet search engines.
Halo effect : Tendency for a person's positive or negative traits to "spill over" from one area of their personality to another in others' perceptions of them.
Hostile media effect : Tendency to perceive news coverage as biased against your position on an issue.
Humor effect : That humorous items are more easily remembered than non-humorous ones, which might be explained by the distinctiveness of humor, the increased cognitive processing time to understand the humor, or the emotional arousal caused by the humor.
Lake wobegon effect : Tendency to report flattering beliefs about oneself and believe that one is above average.
List-length effect : A smaller percentage of items are remembered in a longer list, but as the length of the list increases, the absolute number of items remembered increases as well.
Mere exposure effect : Tendency to express undue liking for things merely because they are familiar with them.
Misinformation effect : Memory becoming less accurate because of interference from post-event information.
Modality effect : That memory recall is higher for the last items of a list when the list items were received via speech than when they were received through writing.
Overconfidence effect : Tendency of being more certain than is justified, given your priors and the evidence available.
Part-list cueing effect : That being shown some items from a list and later retrieving one item causes it to become harder to retrieve the other items.
Picture superiority effect : The notion that concepts that are learned by viewing pictures are more easily and frequently recalled than are concepts that are learned by viewing their written word form counterparts.
Positivity effect : That older adults favor positive over negative information in their memories.
Primacy effect : Tendency to weigh initial events more than subsequent events.
Processing effect : That information that takes longer to read, and is processed with more difficulty, is more easily remembered.
Pseudocertainty effect : Tendency to make risk-averse choices if the expected outcome is positive, but make risk-seeking choices to avoid negative outcomes.
Recency effect : Tendency to weigh recent events more than earlier events.
Self-relevance effect : That memories relating to the self are better recalled than similar information relating to others.
Spacing effect : That information is better recalled if exposure to it is repeated over a long span of time rather than a short one.
Spotlight effect : Tendency to overestimate the amount that other people notice your appearance or behavior.
Subadditivity effect : Tendency to judge probability of the whole to be less than the probabilities of the parts.
Suffix effect : Diminishment of the recency effect because a sound item is appended to the list that the subject is not required to recall.
Telescoping effect : Tendency to perceive recent events to have occurred more remotely and remote events appear to have occurred more recently.
Testing effect : The fact that you more easily remember information you have read by rewriting it instead of rereading it.
Underconfidence effect : State of being more uncertain than is justified, given your priors and the evidence you are aware of.
Verbatim effect : That the "gist" of what someone has said is better remembered than the verbatim wording. This is because memories are representations, not exact copies.
Von restorff effect : Tendency to remember an item that "stands out like a sore thumb", more than other items.
Zeigarnik effect : That uncompleted or interrupted tasks are remembered better than completed ones.
Focusing effect : Tendency of placing too much importance on one aspect of an event, causes error in accurately predicting the utility of a future outcome.
Endowment effect : Tendency to demand much more to give up an object than they would be willing to pay to acquire it.
Next-in-line effect : That a person in a group has diminished recall for the words of others who spoke immediately before himself, if they take turns speaking.
Matthew Effect : Whoever has will be given more, whoever does not have, even what they have will be taken from them.
Conjunction fallacy : Assumption that specific conditions are more probable than general ones.
Detached lever fallacy : Assumption that something simple for one system will be simple for others.
Gambler's fallacy : Assumption that individual random events are influenced by previous random events. Example: I've flipped heads with this coin five times consecutively, so the chance of tails coming out on the sixth flip is much greater than heads.
Mind projection fallacy : Assumption that the way you see the world reflects the way the world really is.
Typical mind fallacy : Assumption that other people are more like you than they actually are.
Fallacy of gray : Assumption that because nothing is certain, everything is equally uncertain. It does not take into account that some things are more certain than others.
The Sophisticate : "The world isn't black and white. No one does pure good or pure bad. Therefore, no one is better than anyone else." The Zetet: "Knowing only gray, you conclude that all grays are the same shade. You mock the simplicity of the two-color view, yet you replace it with a one-color view."
Planning fallacy : Underestimating task-completion times.
Sunk cost fallacy : Letting past investments interfere with decision-making in the present.
Giant cheesecake fallacy : Occurs when an argument leaps directly from capability to actuality, without considering the necessary intermediate of motive.
Narrative fallacy : A vulnerability to over-interpretation and our predilection for compact stories over raw truths.
Scales of justice fallacy : Error of using a simple polarized scheme for deciding a complex issue/ each piece of evidence about the question is individually categorized as supporting exactly one of the two opposing positions.
Top 1% fallacy : Related to not taking into account the idea that a small sample size is not always reflective of a whole population and that sample populations with certain characteristics, e.g. made up of repeat job seekers, are not reflective of the whole population.
Fallacy of relative privation : Error of thinking that if something is worse than the problem currently being discussed, then the problem currently being discussed isn't that important at all. In other words: nothing matters if it's not literally the worst thing happening
Toupée fallacy : All toupées look fake, I've never seen one that I couldn't tell was fake.
Asymmetric insight : Tendency to perceive the knowledge of their peers to surpass their peers' knowledge of them.
Control : Tendency to believe they can control or at least influence outcomes that they clearly cannot.
External agency : Tendency to perceive self-generated preferences as instead being caused by insightful, effective and benevolent agents.
Truth effect : Tendency to identify as true statements familiar statements over unfamiliar ones.
Clustering : Tendency to perceive patterns where actually none exist.
Frequency : Tendency to notice something everywhere after having learnt about it. Also known as the Baader-Meinhof Phenomenon.
Transparency : Tendency to overestimate others' ability to know them, and they also overestimate their ability to know others. Misleading impression that your words convey more to others than they really do.
Anti-inductiveness : The idea that the market would stop being efficient if everyone acted like it already was efficient. For example, a vote in a democracy, the more people that believe their vote counts towards the outcome of an election, the less their votes count. Also known as the Reverse Tinkerbell effect.
Anti-epistemology : Bad explicit beliefs about rules of reasoning, usually developed in the course of protecting an existing false belief
Ontology : The topic concerning the nature of being.
Gestalt : The conscious experience must be considered globally, as having a reality of its own, independent of the parts.
Dasein : German word for 'existence', literally meaning 'being there'.
Deliberate practice : Focused, consistent and goal-oriented training. It favours quality over quantity. It knows not all practice is created equal.
Perfect Duty : Perfect duties are duties that are blameworthy if not met, as they are a basic required duty for a human being.
Maxim : A concise expression of a fundamental moral rule or principle.
Hermeneutics : The branch of knowledge that deals with interpretation.
Ubermensch : The one who seeks out hardship and creates new values.
The Last Man : The one who seeks comfort and alms.
Saudade : A deep emotional state of nostalgic or profound melancholic longing for an absent something or someone that one loves. Saudade was once described as "the love that remains" after someone is gone.
Wabisabi : Acknowledgement that nothing lasts, nothing is finished, and that nothing is perfect.
Health : A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
Dark Greens : The ones who believe that environmental problems are an inherent part of industrialized civilization, and seek radical political change.
Light Greens : The ones who see protecting the environment first and foremost as a personal responsibility, focusing on environmentalism as a lifestyle choice.
Veganism : A philosophy and way of living which seeks to prevent all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, other animals for food, clothing or any other purpose.
Ecofeminism : Ecofeminist thinkers draw on the concept of gender to theorize on the relationship between humans and the natural world.
Animal Rights : Refers to the position that the interests of nonhuman animals, including their interest in not suffering, should be afforded the same consideration as the interests of humans and that nonhuman animals have rights and inherent value independent of their usefulness to humans.
Animal Liberation Front : An international, leaderless resistance that engages in removing animals from laboratories and farms, destroying facilities, arranging safe houses and veterinary care, and operating sanctuaries where the animals subsequently live.
Animal Advocacy : Promotion of the interests of animals, generally. Includes work for animal rights and animal welfare.
Commodification : The conversion of a living being, principle, or natural environment into an "object" that is used, exchanged, or consumed for profit or other desired gain.
Speciesism : Discrimination on the basis of species, oppression and judgment of an animal on the basis of that animal's species or that animal's non-membership in a species. The belief in human superiority over other animals or certain nonhuman animals' superiority over others.
Debarking : The surgical removal and manipulation of tissue in a dog's vocal cords to drastically quiet his or her natural bark. Debarking does not address the underlying reasons that a dog may be barking excessively, and the dog will continue to bark, albeit more quietly or silently.
Draize Test : Infamous and excruciating eye-irritation test for household products and cosmetics in which drops of a substance are placed in the eyes of rabbits, causing the animals ulcers, blindness, and other injuries before they are ultimately killed.
Flowerpot Technique : A technique used in sleep deprivation studies designed to allow NREM sleep but prevent REM sleep.
Forced Molting : The egg-industry practice of artificially inducing hens to molt by depriving them of food for several days to two weeks when their egg production has declined.
Rape Rack : The industry term referring to the contraptions in which cows and pigs are restrained while they are forcibly inseminated.
Veal Crate : Small crate in which a calf being raised for veal is confined and tied up. The calf's movement within the crate is intentionally restricted to limit the strengthening of muscle, and an insufficient diet is provided intentionally to keep the cow anemic.
Uncivilisation : It is to accept the world for what it is and to make our home here, rather than dreaming of relocating to the stars, or existing in a Man-forged bubble and pretending to ourselves that there is nothing outside it to which we have any connection at all.
Dark Mountaineers : Artists who generally ascribe to the idea that climate collapse cannot be stopped or reversed, a forum in which one can be honest about their sense of dread and loss.
Inhumanism : A shifting of emphasis and significance from man to not-man, the rejection of human solipsism and recognition of the transhuman magnificence.
Anthropocene : A proposed epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems, including, but not limited to, anthropogenic climate change.
Simple pastoral : Merely another of our many vehicles of escape from reality, that doesn’t interrogate civilisation's main driving forces, but instead focuses on returning to rural simplicity.
Object Oriented Ontology : A school of thought that rejects the privileging of human existence over the existence of nonhuman objects, that objects exist independently of human perception and are not ontologically exhausted by their relations with humans.
Freudian death drive : The hypothesis of a death instinct, the task of which is to lead organic life back into the inanimate state.
Agrilogistics paradox : A maniacal urge to live, and to diminish stimulation, that ends up being self-destructive, generating mass extinction, through global warming, that it was designed to avoid.
Existential Risk : An event that could cause human extinction or permanently and drastically curtail humanity's potential.
Strong Longtermism : The primary determinant of the value of our actions is the effects of those actions on the very long-run future.
The Hinge of History Hypothesis : The hypothese that we are living at the most influential time ever.
Negative Emissions : Divided into “natural” and “technological” categories, these strategies aim to remove carbon from the atmosphere, however, there remains no evidence that either branch is feasible despite their inclusion in climate modeling. The large majority of IPCC models (344/400 as of 2019) feature theoretical negative emissions.
Carbon Capture : A technological negative emissions solution that aims to remove carbon from the air, storing it as inert material. Small units exist at high cost, and it remains unclear whether large scale deployment is possible or desirable.
Carbon Budget : An attempt to provide the world with a means of tracking emissions with goals set based on projected temperature rise. Most models are not believed to accurately account for feedback loops.
Feedback Loops : The results of global warming are complex. Much of the destruction caused by warming also contributes: the albedo effect, forest fires, melting ice, and ocean acidification all mean more greenhouse gases and less places for carbon to go. It remains unclear how these systems will interact with ongoing anthropogenic warming.
Albedo Effect : Warming caused by the disappearance of ice which previously reflect heat back into space.
Solar Radiation Management : Methods of reducing global temperature by increasing albedo, frequently discussed methods include stratospheric sulphur injection and marine cloud brightening.
Scientific Reticence : A phenomenon where scientists failed to emphasize many the more dramatic results of the study of global warming over concerns of reception.
Fossil Capitalism : A theory suggesting the modern economy is actually just a system that runs on fossil fuel.
Tragedy of the Commons : A situation in a shared-resource system where individual users, acting independently according to their own self-interest, behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling the shared resource through their collective action.
Electronics right to repair : A government legislation intended to allow consumers the ability to repair and modify their own electronics, where otherwise the manufacturer of such devices require the consumer to use only their offered services.
Obsolescence of desirability : When designers change the styling of products so customers will purchase products more frequently due to the decrease in the perceived desirability of unfashionable items.
Obsolescence of function : When an item is produced to break down or otherwise become non-functional in an abnormally short period of time.
Obsolescence of compatibility : When a product becomes obsolete by altering the system in which it is used in such a way as to make its continued use difficult. Common examples of planned systemic obsolescence include not accommodating forward compatibility in software.
Pseudo-obsolescence of desirability : When planned obsolescence appears to introduce innovative changes into a product, but in reality does not, often forcibly outfashioning an otherwise-useful product.
Non-user-replaceable batteries : Some products, such as mobile phones, laptops, and electric toothbrushes, contain batteries that are not replaceable by the end-user after they have worn down, therefore leaving an aging battery trapped inside the device.
Phoebus cartel : The cartel conveniently lowered operational costs and worked to standardize the life expectancy of light bulbs at 1,000 hours, down from 2,500 hours, and raised prices without fear of competition.
Belief : The mental state in which an individual holds a proposition to be true.
Priors : The beliefs an agent holds regarding a fact, hypothesis or consequence, before being presented with evidence.
Alief : An independent source of emotional reaction which can coexist with a contradictory belief. Example The fear felt when a monster jumps out of the darkness in a scary movie is based on the alief that the monster is about to attack you, even though you believe that it cannot.
Proper belief : Requires observations, gets updated upon encountering new evidence, and provides practical benefit in anticipated experience.
Improper belief : Is a belief that isn't concerned with describing the territory. Note that the fact that a belief just happens to be true doesn't mean you're right to have it. If you buy a lottery ticket, certain that it's a winning ticket (for no reason), and it happens to be, believing that was still a mistake.
Belief in belief : Where it is difficult to believe a thing, it is often much easier to believe that you ought to believe it. Were you to really believe and not just believe in belief, the consequences of error would be much more severe. When someone makes up excuses in advance, it would seem to require that belief, and belief in belief, have become unsynchronized.
A Priori : Knowledge which we can be sure of without any empirical evidence(evidence from our senses). So, knowledge that you could realize if you were just a mind floating in a void unconnected to a body.
Ad baculum : Argument relying on an appeal to fear or a threat.
Ad ignorantiam : Argument relying on people's ignorance.
Ad populum : Argument relying on sentimental weakness.
Ad verecundiam : Argument relying on the the words of an "expert", or authority.
Ex silentio : Argument relying on ignorance.
Ex nihilo : An argument that bears no relation to the previous topic of discussion.
Non sequitur : An inference that does not follow from established premises or evidence.
Akrasia : State of acting against one's better judgment.
Connotation : Emotional association with a word.
Intransigence : Refusal to change one's views or to agree about something.
Inferential distance : Gap between the background knowledge and epistemology of a person trying to explain an idea, and the background knowledge and epistemology of the person trying to understand it.
Straw man : Creating a false or made up scenario and then attacking it. Painting your opponent with false colors only deflects the purpose of the argument.
Steel man : To steelman is to address the strongest possible variant or the most charitable interpretation of an idea, rather than the most available phrasings.
Red herring : A diversion from the active topic.
Rationalization : Starts from a conclusion, and then works backward to arrive at arguments apparently favouring that conclusion. Rationalization argues for a side already selected.
Dogpiling : A disagreement wherein one person says something wrong or offensive, and a large number of people comment in response to tell them how wrong they are, and continue to disparage the original commenter beyond any reasonable time limit.
Grandstanding : An action that is intended to make people notice and admire you, behaving in a way that makes people pay attention to you instead of thinking about more important matters.
Whataboutism : An attempt to discredit an opponent's position by charging them with hypocrisy without directly refuting or disproving their argument.
Sybil attack : An attacker subverts the reputation system of a P2P network by creating a large number of pseudonymous identities and uses them to gain a disproportionately large influence.
Siren Servers : Instead of paying each individual for their contribution to the data pool, the server concentrate wealth in the hands of the few who control the data center. Alluding to the Sirens of Ulysses.
Paradox of tolerance : States that if a society is tolerant without limit, its ability to be tolerant is eventually seized or destroyed by the intolerant.
The Veil Of Ignorance : Behind this veil, you know nothing of yourself and your natural abilities, position in society, sex, race, nationality, or individual tastes. All individuals are simply specified as rational, free, and morally equal beings.
Behavioral sink : A term used to describe the collapse in behavior(stress, alienation, hostility, sexual perversion, parental incompetence, and rabid violence) which resulted from overcrowdedness in an experiment on mice, drawing parallels with societal collapse found in the human Megalopolis.
Dunbar's Number : A suggested cognitive limit of 150, to the number of people with whom one can maintain stable social relationships.
PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING
Beginner's Mind : Approach every problem no matter how simple or difficult with eagerness, openness, and without limiting preconceptions. Be a beginner.
Zenith : The imaginary point directly above a particular location, opposite to the apparent gravitational force at that location.
Azimuth : The angle offset between the north vector and target's vector on the horizontal plane.
Longitude : The east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Latitude : The north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Nautical Mile : Defined as 1852 meters, or one minute of angle along a meridian on the Earth.
LAN : Local Apparent Noon.
NSL : Noon sight latitude.
GHA : Greenwich hour angle.
Sun altitude offset : 4 seconds off is equal to 1 nautical mile.
Permacomputing : http://viznut.fi/texts-en/permacomputing.html
The ASCII Ribbon Campaign : http://www.asciiribbon.org/
Pinebook : https://pine64.org/pinebook
OPERATING SYSTEM LINKS
Linux From Scratch : http://intestinate.com/pilfs
Plan 9 : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plan_9_from_Bell_Labs
Wiki : https://9p.io/wiki/plan9/plan_9_wiki
Intro : http://lsub.org/who/nemo/9.intro.pdf
IRC Channel : https://9p.io/wiki/plan9/IRC/index.html
Bell Labs : http://doc.cat-v.org/bell_labs
Plan9 Software : https://ftrv.se/_/9/
How I Switched to Plan9 : http://helpful.cat-v.org/Blog/2019/12/03/0
9Front : http://9front.org/
PLAN9 DEVELOPMENT LINKS
Duck Duck Go Lite : https://ddg.gg/lite
PERSONAL WIKI LINKS
Drew DeVault : https://drewdevault.com
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE LINKS
Nutritional facts : http://nutritionfacts.org
The dotCommunist Manifesto : http://moglen.law.columbia.edu/publications/dcm.html
The 18th Century Overture : http://moglen.law.columbia.edu/publications/dcm.html
The Orthodox Faith : https://www.oca.org/orthodoxy/the-orthodox-faith
Ancient Faith : https://www.ancientfaith.com
Hypercard : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HyperCard
THINK Pascal : http://www.think-pascal.org
MacPaint : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MacPaint
HexEdit : https://www.gryphel.com/c/sw/progtool/hexedit/index.html
Kitty : A simple GPU based terminal emulator ~ https://sw.kovidgoyal.net/kitty/
Aerc : A pretty good email client ~ https://aerc-mail.org
Tmux & Mosh : For staying connected without a blimp with my remote computers and Raspberry Pis.
Toot : for browsing Mastodon ~ https://github.com/ihabunek/toot
Vim : for writing, programming, and viewing text files
w3m & lynx : for browsing the web.
weechat : for IRC (usually run remotely over tmux & mosh)
cordless : a Discord client, for when gaming friends won't move to IRC ~ https://github.com/Bios-Marcel/cordless
LibreWolf : for full web browsing.
The Brothers Karamazov : Fyodor Dostoevsky. 1879-1880
The Lord of the Rings : J.R.R. Tolkien. 1954-1955
The Lord of the Rings : Peter Jackson. 2001-2003
Ostrov : Pavel Lungin. 2006
Pong : Ian Benway. 2020
Crusader Kings II : Paradox Interactive. 2012
READING LIST 2020
The Traitor Baru Cormorant : Seth Dickinson
Christianity in East and West : Christopher Dawson
Father Seraphim Rose, His Life and Works : Hieromonk Damascene
Religion and the Rise of Western Culture : Christopher Dawson
Citizen\: An American Lyric : Claudia Rankine
The Lord of the Rings : J.R.R. Tolkien
The Iliad : Homer
READING LIST CONTINUAL
The Orthodox Study Bible
My Life in Christ : Saint John of Kronstadt
Lives of the Saints : OCA
Semi-Modular Synthesizer : Arturia Microbrute
Analog Synthesizer : Elta Поливокс Мини
Analog Resynthesizer : Hologram Infinite Jets
Sound card : Traktor Audio
Sound Computer : Monome Norns
Midi Interface : Roland UM One
Midi Pads : Monome Grid | Akai LPD8
Midi Keys : Akai LPK25
Aliceffekt - Glenda's Travels : ChipsynthMD, Toy Company 2019
Comaduster - Winter Eyes(Aliceffekt Remix) : Tympanik Audio 2013
Veroníque - Fisherman II(Aliceffekt Remix) : 2013
Aliceffekt - Our Forgotten Push(feat. Mega Ran) : Mega Ran Japan Tour 2013
iVardensphere - Ghostnote(Aliceffekt Remix) : Metropolis Records 2012
Aliceffekt - Thievery of the Jade Books : Kinetik Festival Volume 4, Artoffact 2011
Misteur Valaire - Dan Dan(Aliceffekt Remix) : 2011
Doomer - Weltenzerstorer(Aliceffekt Remix) : 2010
Iszoloscope - Dumachus Junction Feat. Aliceffekt : Beyond Within, Ant-zen 2010
Aliceffekt - Laeis 7th Passage E.th : Kinetik Festival Volume 3, Artoffact 2010
Stray - Does it really matter(Aliceffekt Remix) : 2009
Perfection Plastic - Bad Girls(Aliceffekt Remix) : 2009
The freedom to run the program as you wish, for any purpose.
The freedom to study how the program works, and change it.
The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help others.
The freedom to distribute copies of your modified versions to others.
Prototype before polishing. Get it working before optimizing it.
Separate policy from mechanism, separate interfaces from engines.
Write simple modular parts connected by clean interfaces.
Design programs to be connected to other programs.
Write programs to write programs when you can.
Design for the future, because it will be here sooner than you think.
In interface design, always do the least surprising thing.
When a program has nothing surprising to say, it should say nothing.
When a program must fail, it should fail noisily and as soon as possible.
Write big programs only when it is clear by demonstration that nothing else will do.
Consider how you would solve your immediate problem without adding anything new.
Good design makes a product useful.
Good design makes a product understandable.
Good design is unobtrusive.
Good design is honest.
Good design is long-lasting.
Good design is thorough down to the last detail.
Good design is environmentally friendly.
Good design is as little design as possible.
The mind perceives objects as being symmetrical and forming around a center point.
The mind perceives objects that are near, or proximate to each other, to be grouped together.
The mind can only keep 7 (plus or minus 2) items in their working memory, on average.
The mind has a propensity to best remember the first and last items in a series.
The mind remembers uncompleted or interrupted tasks better than completed tasks.
The mind will perceive and interpret ambiguous or complex images as the simplest form possible.
The time it takes to make a decision increases with the number and complexity of choices.
The time to acquire a target is a function of the distance to and size of the target.
Find your passion and figure out how to get paid for it.
Do whatever you want to do, but be the best at it.
Strive for simplicity and competence, but embrace the messiness along the way.
Under-promise and over-deliver, and own up to your screw-ups.
Doing what everybody else is doing feels like the safest thing to do, making it the most competitive, and thus the riskiest.
No one is on their deathbed is wishing they spent more time at work.
Never stop learning.
Doing the right tasks is more important than doing your tasks efficiently.
Write down your goals. Break them down into manageable tasks.
Tackle one task at a time, and group similar tasks together.
You're more attentive in the morning, tackle hard stuff then.
If you can't do it in 8 hours, you can't do it in 10.
Don't forget to stretch, and drink plenty of water.
Keep a record of your time use.
Always look a person in the eye when you talk to them.
Always stand up to shake someone's hand.
Be conscious of your body language.
Ask more than you answer.
First impressions matter.
When you walk, look straight ahead, not at your feet.
Never hit anyone unless they are an immediate threat.
No matter their job or status, everyone deserves your respect.
Never use a long word where a short one will do.
If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
Never use the passive where you can use the active.
Never use a foreign or scientific word, if you can think of an English equivalent.
Never use a figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.
Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous.
Eat varied foods, biodiversity in the diet means less monoculture in the fields.
Pay more for foods grown or raised less intensively and with more care, eat less.
Eat mostly plants, especially leaves. Cook, and if you can, plant a garden.
Avoid food products with unpronounceable ingredients, or more than five in number.
Don't eat anything your great-great-grandmother wouldn't recognize as food.
Expel all of the air from your lungs.
Keep them empty for four seconds.
Inhale through your nose for four seconds.
Hold for four four seconds, don’t clamp down or create pressure.
We will face this reality honestly and learn how to live with it.
We realize that the current and upcoming crises cannot be reduced to a set of problems in need of technological or political solutions.
We believe that the roots of the current and upcoming crises lie in the stories we have been telling ourselves.
The end of the world as we know it is not the end of the world full stop.
Humans are not the point and purpose of the planet.
The Dark Mountaineers intend to challenge the stories which underpin our civilisation:
The myth of progress: The myth first tells us that we are destined for greatness, that we began grunting in the primeval swamps, as a humble part of something called ‘nature', which we have now triumphantly subdued.
The myth of human centrality: The myth that humans are the point and purpose of the planet.
The myth of separation from nature: The myth that humans exist outside of natural forces, and that the agent that is nature can be vainquised.
Solarpunks cherish both nature and progress, the individual and the community.
They believe in a world that is green, colourful, and bright. It can be described as a literary genre, an aesthetic, or a movement. The key points are:
A demand for technology and society to re-centre around sustainability, longevity, and balance with an emphasis on renewable energy.
A focus on decentralisation, community activism, social justice and civic empowerment.
A recognition that economic, social, and ecological injustices are all deeply inter-connected.
We're destroying the world because we are, in a very literal and deliberate way, at war with it. People need more than to be made to feel stupid and guilty. They need more than a vision of doom. They need a vision of the world and of themselves that inspires them.
Solarpunk is the opposite of cyberpunk's nihilism, offering “ingenuity, positive creation, independence, and community.”
Control of actions and speech to avoid unwholesome actions.
Effort to work as much as possible for the good of others, even at the risk of one's life.
Decision to devote oneself to beneficial actions and to remain steadfast on it.
Maintaining a state of mind turned to the happiness of others, to practise love for all beings without exception.
Development of knowledge and understanding through study and analytical reflection. To teach knowledge to others. To use one's wisdom for a maximum of benefits.
You may compete to the full extent of your capabilities, but you may not hunt down your competitors.
The creatures who act as though they belong to the world follow the peace-keeping law, they give the creatures around them a chance to grow toward watever it's possible for them to become. That's how man came into being, the australopithecus didn't imagine that the world belonged to them, so they let him live and grow.
You must absolutely and forever relinquish the idea that you know who live and who should die on this planet.
Establishment of an always perfect tolerance, irrespective of the actions and words of others towards oneself.
Truthfulness (to say only what is right).
Rejection of hatred and worship. Not to follow any particular idea. Maintaining the mind in equanimity.
MUJI Gel Ink Ballpoint Pen 0.5mm
Nook Simple Touch Reader
Handground Coffee Grinder
Simple smoothie blender
; reading notes
Agamemnon : King and leader of the Achaians. Atreus' son. Respected by all the Achaians, except perhaps by Achilleus. Also known as Atreides.
Menelaus : Brother of Agamemnon and son of Atreus. The husband of Helen, on whose behalf the Achaians go to war.
Achaians : Collective name for the Greeks of the Iliad. Also known as the Argives, the Danaans, the Panhellenes, and the Hellenes.
Atreides : Descendant of Atreus. In the Iliad, either Agamemnon or Menelaus.