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<a href="index.html" style="text-decoration:none"><h1 class="title">Block lab at Stanford University</h1></a>
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<li><a href="people.html">People</a></li>
<li><a href="publications.html">Publications</a></li>
<li><a href="research.html">Research</a></li>
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<h2>2018</h2>

<ul>
<li>Savinov, A., Block, S.M.
<strong>Self-cleavage of the <i>glmS</i> ribozyme core is controlled by a fragile folding element.</strong>
PNAS 115: 11976-11981.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1812122115">Full text</a></li>
<li>Milic, B., Chakraborty, A., Han, K., Bassik, M.C., Block, S.M.
<strong>KIF15 nanomechanics and kinesin inhibitors, with implications for cancer chemotherapeutics.</strong>
PNAS 115: E4613-E4622.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1801242115">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2017</h2>

<ul>
<li>Meng, C.A., Fazal, F.M., Block, S.M.
<strong>Real-time observation of polymerase-promoter contact remodeling during transcription initiation.</strong>
Nature Communications 8: 1178.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01041-1">Full text</a></li>
<li>Milic, B., Andreasson, J.O.L., Hogan, D.W., Block, S.M.
<strong>Intraflagellar transport velocity is governed by the number of active KIF17 and KIF3AB motors and their motility properties under load.</strong>
PNAS 114: E6830-E6838.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1708157114">Full text</a></li>
<li>Chakraborty, A., Meng, C.A., Block, S.M.
<strong>Observing single RNA polymerase molecules down to base-pair resolution.</strong>
Methods in Molecular Biology 1486: 391-409.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-6421-5_15">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2015</h2>

<ul>
<li>Duesterberg, V.K., Fischer-Hwang, I.T., Perez, C.F., Hogan, D.W., Block, S.M.
<strong>Observation of long-range tertiary interactions during ligand binding by the TPP riboswitch aptamer.</strong>
eLife 12362.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12362">Full text</a></li>
<li>Fazal, F.M., Koslover, D.J., Luisi, B.F., Block, S.M.
<strong>Direct observation of processive exoribonuclease motion using optical tweezers.</strong>
PNAS 111: 15101-15106.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1514028112">Full text</a></li>
<li>Fazal, F.M., Meng, C.A., Murakami, K., Kornberg, R.D., Block, S.M.
<strong>Real-time observation of the initiation of RNA polymerase II transcription.</strong>
Nature 525: 274-277.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14882">Full text</a></li>
<li>Garcia-Garcia, C., Frieda, K.L., Feoktistova, K., Fraser, C.S., Block, S.M.
<strong>Factor-dependent processivity in human eIF4A DEAD-box helicase.</strong>
Science 348: 1486-1488.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaa5089">Full text</a></li>
<li>Andreasson, J.O.L., Milic, B., Chen, G.Y., Guydosh, N.R., Hancock, W.O., Block, S.M.
<strong>Examining kinesin processivity within a general gating framework.</strong>
eLife 07403.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07403">Full text</a></li>
<li>Andreasson, J.O.L., Shastry, S., Hancock, W.O., Block, S.M.
<strong>The mechanochemical cycle of mammalian kinesin-2 KIF3A/B under load.</strong>
Current Biology 25: 1166-1175.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.03.013">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2014</h2>

<ul>
<li>Blakely, B.L, Dumelin, C.E., Trappmann, B., McGregor, L.M., Choi, C.K., Anthony, P.C., Duesterberg, V.K., Baker, B.M., Block, S.M., Liu, D.R., Chen, C.S.
<strong>A DNA-based molecular probe for optically reporting cellular traction forces.</strong>
Nature Methods 11: 1229-1232.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.3145">Full text</a></li>
<li>Milic, B., Andreasson, J.O.L., Hancock, W.O., Block, S.M.
<strong>Kinesin processivity is gated by phosphate release.</strong>
PNAS 111: 14136-14140.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1410943111">Full text</a></li>
<li>Woodside, W.T., Block, S.M.
<strong>Reconstructing folding energy landscapes by single-molecule force spectroscopy.</strong>
Annual Review of Biophysics 43: 19-39.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-biophys-051013-022754">Full text</a></li>
<li>Larson, M.H., Mooney, R.A., Peters, J.M., Windgassen, T., Nayak, D., Gross, C.A., Block, S.M., Greenleaf, W.J., Landick, R., Weissman, J.S.
<strong>A pause sequence enriched at translation start sites drives transcription dynamics in vivo.</strong>
Science 344: 1042-1047.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1251871">Full text</a></li>
<li>Schweikhard, V., Meng, C., Murakami, K., Kaplan, C., Kornberg, R.D., Block, S.M.
<strong>Transcription factors TFIIF and TFIIS promote transcript elongation by RNA polymerase II by synergistic and independent mechanisms.</strong>
PNAS 111: 6642-6647.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1405181111">Full text</a></li>
<li>Savinov, A., Perez, C.F., Block, S.M.
<strong>Single-molecule studies of riboswitch folding.</strong>
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 1839: 1030-1045.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2014.04.005">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2013</h2>

<ul>
<li>Zhou, J., Schweikhard, V., Block, S.M.
<strong>Single-molecule studies of RNAPII elongation.</strong>
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 1829: 29-38.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2012.08.006">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2012</h2>

<ul>
<li>Koslover, D.J., Fazal, F.M., Mooney, R.A., Landick, R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Binding and translocation of termination factor rho studied at the single-molecule level.</strong>
Journal of Molecular Biology 423: 664-676.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2012.07.027">Full text</a></li>
<li>Frieda, K.L., Block, S.M.
<strong>Direct observation of cotranscriptional folding in an adenine riboswitch.</strong>
Science 338: 397-400.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1225722">Full text</a></li>
<li>Larson, M.H., Zhou, J., Kaplan, C.D., Palangat, M., Kornberg, R.D., Landick, R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Trigger loop dynamics mediate the balance between the transcriptional fidelity and speed of RNA polymerase II.</strong>
PNAS 109: 6555-6560.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1200939109">Full text</a></li>
<li>Palangat, M., Larson, M.H., Hu, X., Gnatt, A., Block, S.M., Landick, R.
<strong>Efficient reconstitution of transcription elongation complexes for single-molecule studies of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II.</strong>
Transcription 3: 146-153.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.4161/trns.20269">Full text</a></li>
<li>Anthony, P.C., Sim, A.Y.L., Chu, V.B., Doniach, S., Block, S.M., Herschlag, D.
<strong>Electrostatics of nucleic acid folding under conformational constraint.</strong>
JACS 134: 4607-4614.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1021/ja208466h">Full text</a></li>
<li>Anthony, P.C., Perez, C.F., Garcia-Garcia, C., Block, S.M.
<strong>Folding energy landscape of the thiamine pyrophosphate riboswitch aptamer.</strong>
PNAS 109: 1485-1489.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1115045109">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2011</h2>

<ul>
<li>Zhou, J., Ha, K.S., La Porta, A., Landick, R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Applied force provides insight into transcriptional pausing and its modulation by transcription factor NusA.</strong>
Molecular Cell 44: 635-646.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2011.09.018">Full text</a></li>
<li>Fazal, F.M., Block, S.M.
<strong>Optical tweezers study life under tension.</strong>
Nature Photonics 5: 318-321.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nphoton.2011.100">Full text</a></li>
<li>Clancy, B.E., Behnke-Parks, W.M., Andreasson, J.O.L., Rosenfeld, S.S., Block, S.M.
<strong>A universal pathway for kinesin stepping.</strong>
Nature Structural &amp; Molecular Biology 18: 1020-1027.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.2104">Full text</a></li>
<li>Larson, M.H., Landick, R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Single-molecule studies of RNA polymerase: one singular sensation, every little step it takes.</strong>
Molecular Cell 41: 249-262.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2011.01.008">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2010</h2>

<ul>
<li>Gutierrez-Medina, B., Block, S.M.
<strong>Visualizing individual microtubules by bright field microscopy.</strong>
American Journal of Physics 78: 1152-1159.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1119/1.3453264">Full text</a></li>
<li>Gutierrez-Medina, B., Andreasson, J.O., Greenleaf, W.J., La Porta, A., Block, S.M.
<strong>An optical apparatus for rotation and trapping.</strong>
Methods in Enzymology 475: 377-404.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(10)75015-1">Full text</a></li>
<li>Herbert, K.M., Zhou, J., Mooney, R.A., La Porta, A., Landick, R., Block, S.M.
<strong><em>E. coli</em> NusG inhibits backtracking and accelerates pause-free transcription by promoting forward translocation of RNA polymerase.</strong>
Journal of Molecular Biology 399: 17-30.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2010.03.051">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2009</h2>

<ul>
<li>Gutierrez-Medina, B., Fehr, A.N., Block, S.M.
<strong>Direct measurements of kinesin torsional properties reveal flexible domains and occasional stalk reversals during stepping.</strong>
PNAS 106: 17007-17012.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0907133106">Full text</a></li>
<li>Valentine, M.T., Block, S.M.
<strong>Force and premature binding of ADP can regulate the processivity of individual Eg5 dimers.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 97: 1671-1677.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2009.07.013">Full text</a></li>
<li>Fehr, A.N., Gutierrez-Medina, B., Asbury, C.L., Block, S.M.
<strong>On the origin of kinesin limping.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 97: 1663-1670.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2009.07.004">Full text</a></li>
<li>Guydosh, N.R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Direct observation of the binding state of the kinesin head to the microtubule.</strong>
Nature 461: 125-128.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08259">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2008</h2>

<ul>
<li>Woodside M.T., Garcia-Garcia, C., Block, S.M.
<strong>Folding and unfolding single RNA molecules under tension.</strong>
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 12: 640-646.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.08.011">Full text</a></li>
<li>Herbert, K.M., Greenleaf, W.J., Block, S.M.
<strong>Single-molecule studies of RNA polymerase: motoring along.</strong>
Annual Review of Biochemistry 77: 149-176.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.biochem.77.073106.100741">Full text</a></li>
<li>Larson, M. H., Greenleaf, W.J., Landick, R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Applied force reveals mechanistic and energetic details of transcription termination.</strong>
Cell 132: 971-982.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.027">Full text</a></li>
<li>Greenleaf, W.J., Frieda, K.L., Foster, D.A.N., Woodside, M.T., Block, S.M.
<strong>Direct observation of hierarchical folding in single riboswitch aptamers.</strong>
Science 319: 630-633.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1151298">Full text</a></li>
<li>Valentine, M.T., Guydosh, N.R., Gutierrez-Medina, B., Fehr, A.N., Andreasson, J.O., Block, S.M.
<strong>Precision steering of an optical trap by electro-optic deflection.</strong>
Optics Letters 33: 599-601.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.33.000599">Full text</a></li>
<li>Fehr, A.N., Asbury, C.L., Block, S.M.
<strong>Kinesin steps do not alternate in size.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 94: L20-L22.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.107.126839">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2007</h2>

<ul>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Kinesin motor mechanics: Binding, stepping, tracking, gating, and limping.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 92: 2986-2995.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.106.100677">Full text</a></li>
<li>Guydosh, N.R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Not so lame after all: Kinesin still walks with a hobbled head.</strong>
The Journal of General Physiology 130: 441-444.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1085/jgp.200709902">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M., Larson, M.H., Greenleaf, W.J., Herbert, K.M., Guydosh, N.R., Anthony, P.C.
<strong>Molecule by molecule, the physics and chemistry of life: SMB 2007.</strong>
Nature Chemical Biology 3: 193-197.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio0407-193">Full text</a></li>
<li>Greenleaf, W.J., Woodside, M.T., Block, S.M.
<strong>High-Resolution, single-molecule measurements of biomolecular motion.</strong>
Annual Review of Biophysics Biomolecular Structure 36: 171-190.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.biophys.36.101106.101451">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2006</h2>

<ul>
<li>Valentine, M.T., Fordyce, P.F., Block, S.M.
<strong>Eg5 steps it up!</strong>
Cell Division 1: 31.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/1747-1028-1-31">Full text</a></li>
<li>Woodside, M.T., Anthony, P.C., Behnke-Parks, W.M., Larizadeh, K., Herschlag, D., Block, S.M.
<strong>Direct measurement of the full, sequence-dependent folding landscape of a nucleic acid.</strong>
Science 314: 1001-1004.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1133601">Full text</a></li>
<li>Greenleaf, W.J., Block, S.M.
<strong>Single-molecule, motion-based DNA sequencing using RNA polymerase.</strong>
Science 313: 801.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1130105">Full text</a></li>
<li>Dalal, R.V., Larson, M.H., Neuman, K.C., Gelles, J., Landick, R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Pulling on the nascent RNA during transcription does not alter kinetics of elongation or ubiquitous pausing.</strong>
Molecular Cell 23: 231-239.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2006.06.023">Full text</a></li>
<li>Herbert, K.M., La Porta, A., Wong, B.J., Mooney, R.A., Neuman, K.C., Landick, R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Sequence-resolved detection of pausing by single RNA polymerase molecules.</strong>
Cell 125: 1084-1094.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2006.04.032">Full text</a></li>
<li>Valentine, M.T., Fordyce, P.M., Krzysiak, T.C., Gilbert, S.P., Block, S.M.
<strong>Individual dimers of the mitotic kinesin motor Eg5 step processively and support substantial loads <em>in vitro</em>.</strong>
Nature Cell Biology 8: 470-477.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb1394">Full text</a></li>
<li>Guydosh, N.R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Backsteps induced by nucelotide analogs suggest the front head of kinesin is gated by strain.</strong>
PNAS 103: 8054-8059.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0600931103">Full text</a></li>
<li>Woodside, M.T., Behnke-Parks, W.M., Larizadeh, K., Travers, K., Hershlag, D., Block, S.M.
<strong>Nanomechanical measurements of the sequence-dependent folding landscapes of single nucleic acid hairpins.</strong>
PNAS 103: 6190-6195.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0511048103">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2005</h2>

<ul>
<li>Abbondanzieri, E.A., Greenleaf, W.J., Shaevitz, J.W., Landick, R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Direct observation of base-pair stepping by RNA polymerase.</strong>
Nature 438: 460-465.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nature04268">Full text</a></li>
<li>Greenleaf, W.J., Woodside, M.T., Abbondanzieri, E.A., Block S.M.
<strong>Passive all-optical force clamp for high-resolution laser trapping.</strong>
Physical Review Letters 95:218102.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.208102">Full text</a></li>
<li>Abbondanzieri, E.A., Shaevitz, J.W., Block S.M.
<strong>Picocalorimetry of transcription by RNA polymerase.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 89: L61-L63.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.105.074195">Full text</a></li>
<li>Neuman, K.C., Abbondanzieri, E.A., and Block, S.M.
<strong>Measurement of the effective focal shift in an optical trap.</strong>
Optics Letters 30: 1318-1320.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.30.001318">Full text</a></li>
<li>Shaevitz, J.W., Block, S.M. and Schnitzer, M.J.
<strong>Statistical kinetics of macromolecular dynamics.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 89: 2277-2285.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.105.064295">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2004</h2>

<ul>
<li>Lang, M.J., Fordyce, P.M., Engh, A.M, Neuman, K.C., Block, S.M.
<strong>Simultaneous, coincident optical trapping and single molecule fluorescence.</strong>
Nature Methods 1: 133-139.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth714">Full text</a></li>
<li>Neuman, K. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Optical trapping.</strong>
Review of Scientific Instruments 75: 2787-2809.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1785844">Full text</a></li>
<li>Perkins, T.T., Li, H.W., Dalal, R.V., Gelles, J., Block, S.M.
<strong>Forward and reverse motion of single RecBCD molecules on DNA.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 86: 1640-1648.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(04)74232-0">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2003</h2>

<ul>
<li>Asbury, C.L., Fehr, A.N., Block, S.M.
<strong>Kinesin moves by an asymmetric hand-over-hand mechanism.</strong>
Science 302: 2130-2134.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1092985">Full text</a></li>
<li>Shaevitz, J.W., Abbondanzieri, E.A., Landick, R., Block, S.M.
<strong>Backtracking by single RNA polymerase molecules observed at near-base-pair resolution.</strong>
Nature 426: 684-687.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/nature02191">Full text</a></li>
<li>Neuman, K.C., Abbondanzieri, E.A., Landick, R., Gelles, J., Block, S.M.
<strong>Ubiquitous transcriptional pausing is independent of RNA polymerase backtracking.</strong>
Cell 115: 347-447.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00845-6">Full text</a></li>
<li>Perkins T.T., Dalal R.V., Mitsis P.G., Block S.M.
<strong>Sequence-dependent pausing of single lambda exonuclease molecules.</strong>
Science 301: 1914-1918.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1088047">Full text</a></li>
<li>Rosenfeld S.S., Fordyce P.M., Jeffereson G.M., King P.H., Block S.M.
<strong>Stepping and stretching: How kinesin uses internal strain to walk processively.</strong>
Journal of Biological Chemistry 278: 18550-18556.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M300849200">Full text</a></li>
<li>Lang, M.J., Fordyce, P.M. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Combined optical trapping and single-molecule fluorescence.</strong>
Journal of Biology 2: 6.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-4924-2-6">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M., Asbury, C.L., Shaevitz, J.W., Lang, M.J.
<strong>Probing the kinesin reaction cycle with a 2D optical force clamp.</strong>
PNAS 100: 2351-2356.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0436709100">Full text</a></li>
<li>Lang. M.J. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Resource Letter: LBOT-1: Laser-based optical tweezers.</strong>
American Journal of Physics 71: 201.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1119/1.1532323">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2002</h2>

<ul>
<li>Lang, M.J., Asbury, C.L., Shaevitz, J.W., Block, S.M.
<strong>An automated two-dimensional optical force clamp for single molecule studies.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 83: 491-501.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(02)75185-0">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>A not-so-cheap stunt.</strong>
Science 297: 769.</li>
<li>Gross, S.P., Welte, M.A., Block, S.M. and E.F. Wieschaus.
<strong>Coordination of opposite-polarity microtubule motors.</strong>
Journal of Cell Biology 156: 715-724.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200109047">Full text</a></li>
<li>Davis, L.J., Odde, D.J., Block, S.M. and Gross, S.P.
<strong>The importance of lattice defects in katanin-mediated microtubule severing in vitro.</strong>
Biophysical Journal. 82: 2916-2927.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(02)75632-4">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2001</h2>

<ul>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>The growing threat of biological weapons.</strong>
American Scientist 89: 28-37.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1511/2001.1.28">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>2000</h2>

<ul>
<li>Schnitzer, M.J., Visscher, K. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Mechanism of force production by single kinesin motors.</strong>
Nature Cell Biology 2: 718-723.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/35036345">Full text</a></li>
<li>Baumann, C.G., Bloomfield, V.A., Smith, S.B., Bustamante, C., Wang, M.D. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Stretching of single collapsed DNA molecules.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 78: 1965-1978.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(00)76744-0">Full text</a></li>
<li>Gross, S.P., Welte, M.A., Block, S.M. and E.F. Wieschaus.
<strong>Dynein-mediated cargo transport in vivo: A switch controls travel distance</strong>
Journal of Cell Biology 148: 945-956.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.148.5.945">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>1999</h2>

<ul>
<li>Neuman, K., Chadd, E.H., Liou, G.F., Bergman, K. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Characterization of photodamage to Escherichia coli in optical traps.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 77: 2656-2863.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(99)77117-1">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Living nightmares: Biological warfare threats enabled by molecular biology.</strong>
In <strong>The New Terror: Facing the Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons</strong>, edited by Drell, S.D., Sofaer, A.D., and Wilson, G.D.
Hoover Institution Press.
ISBN 978-0817997014.</li>
<li>Visscher, K., Schnitzer, M.J. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Single kinesin molecules studied with a molecular force clamp.</strong>
Nature 400: 184-189.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/22146">Full text</a></li>
<li>Bouchiat, C., Wang, M.D., Allemand, J.-F., Strick, T., Block, S.M. and Croquette, V.
<strong>Estimating the persistence length of a worm-like chain molecule from force-extension measurements.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 76: 409-413.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(99)77207-3">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>1998</h2>

<ul>
<li>Wang, M.D., Schnitzer, M.J., Yin, H., Landick, R., Gelles, J., and Block, S.M.
<strong>Force and velocity measured for single molecules of RNA polymerase.</strong>
Science 292: 902-907.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.282.5390.902">Full text</a></li>
<li>Visscher, K. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Versatile optical traps with feedback control.</strong>
Methods in Enzymology 298: 460-489.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(98)98040-5">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Kinesin: What gives?</strong>
Cell 93: 5-8.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81138-1">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Leading the procession: New insights into kinesin motors.</strong>
Journal of Cell Biology 140: 1281-1284.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.140.6.1281">Full text</a></li>
<li>Welte, M.A., Gross, S.P., Postner, M., Block, S.M. and Wieschaus, E.F.
<strong>Developmental regulation of vesicle transport in Drosophila embryos: Forces and kinetics.</strong>
Cell 92: 547-557.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80947-2">Full text</a></li>
<li>Luna, E.J., Hitt A.L., Shutt, D., Wessels, D., Soll, D., Jay, P., Hug, C., Elson, E.L., Vesley, A., Downey, G.P., Wang, M., Block, S.M, Sigurdson, W., and Sachs, F.
<strong>Role of ponticulin in pseudopod dynamics, cell-cell adhesion, and mechanical stability of an amoeboid membrane skeleton.</strong>
Biological Bulletin 194: 345-347.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.2307/1543108">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Constructing optical tweezers.</strong>
In <strong>Cells: A Laboratory Manual</strong>, edited by Spector, D.L., Goldman, R., Leinwand, L.
Cold Spring Harbor Press.
ISBN 978-0879695217.</li>
</ul>

<h2>1997</h2>

<ul>
<li>Schnitzer, M.J. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Kinesin hydrolyses one ATP per 8-nm step.</strong>
Nature 388: 386-390.
<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9237757">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Real engines of creation.</strong>
Nature 386: 217-219.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/386217a0">Full text</a></li>
<li>Wang, M.D., Yin, H., Landick, R., Gelles, J., and Block, S.M.
<strong>Stretching DNA with optical tweezers.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 72: 1335-1346.
<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9138579">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>1996</h2>

<ul>
<li>Visscher, K., Gross, S.P., and Block, S.M.
<strong>Construction of multiple-beam optical traps with nanometer-level position sensing.</strong>
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 2: 1066-1076.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1109/2944.577338">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Do’s and don’ts of poster presentation.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 71: 3527-3529.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(96)79549-8">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Fifty ways to love your lever: Myosin motors.</strong>
Cell 87: 151-157.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81332-X">Full text</a></li>
<li>Schnitzer, M.J. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Statistical kinetics of processive enzymes.</strong>
Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 60: 793-802.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1101/SQB.1995.060.01.085">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>1995</h2>

<ul>
<li>Yin, H., Wang, M.D., Svoboda, K., Landick, R., Block, S.M. and Gelles, J.
<strong>Transcription against an applied force.</strong>
Science 270: 1653-1656.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/science.270.5242.1653">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>One small step for myosin.</strong>
Nature 378: 132-133.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/378132a0">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Motility assays for motor proteins.</strong>
Quarterly Review of Biology 70: 217-218.
<a href="https://www.jstor.org/stable/3036257">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M. and K. Svoboda.
<strong>Analysis of high resolution recordings of motor movement.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 68: 230S-241S.
<a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1281932/">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Nanometers and piconewtons: the macromolecular mechanics of kinesin.</strong>
Trends in Cell Biology 5: 169-175.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0962-8924(00)88982-5">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>1994</h2>

<ul>
<li>Svoboda, K., Mitra, P. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Fluctuation analysis of motor protein movement and single enzyme kinetics.</strong>
PNAS 91: 11782-11786.
<a href="https://www.jstor.org/stable/2366220">Full text</a></li>
<li>Svoboda, K. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Optical trapping of metallic Rayleigh particles.</strong>
Optics Letters 19: 930-932.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1364/OL.19.000930">Full text</a></li>
<li>Svoboda, K. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Force and velocity measured for single kinesin molecules.</strong>
Cell 77: 773-784.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-8674(94)90060-4">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Biophysical principles of sensory transduction: The importance of <em>kT</em>.</strong>
In <strong>Sensory Transduction</strong>, edited by Elsner, N., and Breer, H.
Proceedings of the 22nd Göttingen Neurobiology Conference 1994; Volume 1.
Thieme Medical Publishers.
ISBN 978-3131394019.</li>
<li>Svoboda, K. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Biological applications of optical forces.</strong>
Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure 23: 247-285.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.bb.23.060194.001335">Full text</a></li>
<li>Fahrner, K. A., Block, S.M., Krishnaswamy, S., Parkinson, J.S. and Berg, H.C.
<strong>A mutant hook-associated protein (HAP3) facilitates torsionally-induced transformations of the flagellar filament of <em>Escherichia coli</em>.</strong>
Journal of Molecular Biology 238: 173-186.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1994.1279">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>1993</h2>

<ul>
<li>Svoboda, K., Schmidt, C.F., Schnapp, B.J., and Block, S.M.
<strong>Direct observation of kinesin stepping by optical trapping interferometry.</strong>
Nature 365: 721-727.
<a href="https://doi.org/doi:10.1038/365721a0">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>1992</h2>

<ul>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Making light work with optical tweezers.</strong>
Nature 360: 493-495.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/360493a0">Full text</a></li>
<li>Svoboda, K., Schmidt, C.F., Branton, D. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Conformation and elasticity of the isolated red blood cell membrane.</strong>
Biophysical Journal 63: 784-793.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3495(92)81644-2">Full text</a></li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Biophysical principles of sensory transduction.</strong>
In <strong>Sensory Transduction</strong>, edited by Corey, D.P., and Roper, S.D.
Rockefeller University Press.
ISBN 978-0874700947.</li>
<li>Svoboda, K., Schmidt, C.F., Lei, N., Safinya, C.R., Block, S.M. and Branton, D.
<strong>Scattering studies of the isolated red blood cell skeleton, a biological two-dimensional polymer.</strong>
Materials Research Society Symposia Proceedings 248: 63-68.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1557/PROC-248-63">Full text</a></li>
<li>Schmidt, C.F., Svoboda, K., Lei, N., Safinya, C.R., Block, S.M. and Branton, D.
<strong>The isolated human red blood cell skeleton: an example of a flexible tethered membrane.</strong>
In <strong>The Structure and Conformation of Amphiphilic Membranes</strong>, edited by Lipowsky, R., Richter, D., and Kremer, K.
Springer-Verlag.
ISBN 978-3642847653.</li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>"E pur si muove! (It moves, nevertheless!, Galileo)".</strong>
Trends in Cell Biology 2: 60-61.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/0962-8924(92)90168-M">Full text</a></li>
<li>Charon, N.W., Goldstein, S.F., Block, S.M., Curci, K., Ruby, J.D. and Limberger, R.J. 
<strong>Morphology and dynamics of protruding spirochete flagella.</strong>
Journal of Bacteriology 174: 832-840.
<a href="http://jb.asm.org/content/174/3/832.abstract">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>1991</h2>

<ul>
<li>Block, S.M., Fahrner, K.A. and Berg, H.C.
<strong>Visualization of bacterial flagella by video-enhanced light microscopy.</strong>
Journal of Bacteriology 173: 933-936.
<a href="http://jb.asm.org/content/173/2/933.abstract">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

<h2>1990</h2>

<ul>
<li>Block, S.M., Goldstein, L.S.B., and Schnapp, B.J.
<strong>Bead movement by single kinesin molecules studied with optical tweezers.</strong>
Nature 348: 348-352.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/348348a0">Full text</a></li>
<li>Shepherd, G.M.G., Corey, D.P. and Block, S.M.
<strong>Actin cores of hair-cell stereocilia support myosin motility.</strong>
PNAS 87: 8627-8631.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.87.21.8627">Full text</a></li>
<li>Schnitzer, M.J., Block, S.M., Berg, H.C. and Purcell, E.M.
<strong>Strategies for chemotaxis.</strong>
In <strong>Biology of the Chemotactic Response</strong>, edited by Armitage, J.P., and Lackie, J.M.
Society for General Microbiology.
ISBN 978-0521403139.</li>
<li>Block, S.M.
<strong>Optical tweezers: a new tool for biophysics.</strong>
In <strong>Noninvasive Techniques in Cell Biology</strong>, edited by Grinstein, S., and Foskett, K.
Wiley.
ISBN 978-0471568094.</li>
</ul>

<h2>1989</h2>

<ul>
<li>Block, S.M., Blair, D.F. and Berg, H.C.
<strong>Compliance of bacterial flagella measured with optical tweezers.</strong>
Nature 338: 514-518.
<a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/338514a0">Full text</a></li>
</ul>

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