2128a6fea26aaef3acb95858e1ea06f36e89177c — Gregory Chamberlain 1 year, 2 months ago
Initial commit
A  => COPYING +674 -0
@@ 1,674 @@
                    GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                       Version 3, 29 June 2007

 Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <https://fsf.org/>
 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


  The GNU General Public License is a free, copyleft license for
software and other kinds of works.

  The licenses for most software and other practical works are designed
to take away your freedom to share and change the works.  By contrast,
the GNU General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to
share and change all versions of a program--to make sure it remains free
software for all its users.  We, the Free Software Foundation, use the
GNU General Public License for most of our software; it applies also to
any other work released this way by its authors.  You can apply it to
your programs, too.

  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
them if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you
want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new
free programs, and that you know you can do these things.

  To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you
these rights or asking you to surrender the rights.  Therefore, you have
certain responsibilities if you distribute copies of the software, or if
you modify it: responsibilities to respect the freedom of others.

  For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the recipients the same
freedoms that you received.  You must make sure that they, too, receive
or can get the source code.  And you must show them these terms so they
know their rights.

  Developers that use the GNU GPL protect your rights with two steps:
(1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this License
giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it.

  For the developers' and authors' protection, the GPL clearly explains
that there is no warranty for this free software.  For both users' and
authors' sake, the GPL requires that modified versions be marked as
changed, so that their problems will not be attributed erroneously to
authors of previous versions.

  Some devices are designed to deny users access to install or run
modified versions of the software inside them, although the manufacturer
can do so.  This is fundamentally incompatible with the aim of
protecting users' freedom to change the software.  The systematic
pattern of such abuse occurs in the area of products for individuals to
use, which is precisely where it is most unacceptable.  Therefore, we
have designed this version of the GPL to prohibit the practice for those
products.  If such problems arise substantially in other domains, we
stand ready to extend this provision to those domains in future versions
of the GPL, as needed to protect the freedom of users.

  Finally, every program is threatened constantly by software patents.
States should not allow patents to restrict development and use of
software on general-purpose computers, but in those that do, we wish to
avoid the special danger that patents applied to a free program could
make it effectively proprietary.  To prevent this, the GPL assures that
patents cannot be used to render the program non-free.

  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

                       TERMS AND CONDITIONS

  0. Definitions.

  "This License" refers to version 3 of the GNU General Public License.

  "Copyright" also means copyright-like laws that apply to other kinds of
works, such as semiconductor masks.

  "The Program" refers to any copyrightable work licensed under this
License.  Each licensee is addressed as "you".  "Licensees" and
"recipients" may be individuals or organizations.

  To "modify" a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work
in a fashion requiring copyright permission, other than the making of an
exact copy.  The resulting work is called a "modified version" of the
earlier work or a work "based on" the earlier work.

  A "covered work" means either the unmodified Program or a work based
on the Program.

  To "propagate" a work means to do anything with it that, without
permission, would make you directly or secondarily liable for
infringement under applicable copyright law, except executing it on a
computer or modifying a private copy.  Propagation includes copying,
distribution (with or without modification), making available to the
public, and in some countries other activities as well.

  To "convey" a work means any kind of propagation that enables other
parties to make or receive copies.  Mere interaction with a user through
a computer network, with no transfer of a copy, is not conveying.

  An interactive user interface displays "Appropriate Legal Notices"
to the extent that it includes a convenient and prominently visible
feature that (1) displays an appropriate copyright notice, and (2)
tells the user that there is no warranty for the work (except to the
extent that warranties are provided), that licensees may convey the
work under this License, and how to view a copy of this License.  If
the interface presents a list of user commands or options, such as a
menu, a prominent item in the list meets this criterion.

  1. Source Code.

  The "source code" for a work means the preferred form of the work
for making modifications to it.  "Object code" means any non-source
form of a work.

  A "Standard Interface" means an interface that either is an official
standard defined by a recognized standards body, or, in the case of
interfaces specified for a particular programming language, one that
is widely used among developers working in that language.

  The "System Libraries" of an executable work include anything, other
than the work as a whole, that (a) is included in the normal form of
packaging a Major Component, but which is not part of that Major
Component, and (b) serves only to enable use of the work with that
Major Component, or to implement a Standard Interface for which an
implementation is available to the public in source code form.  A
"Major Component", in this context, means a major essential component
(kernel, window system, and so on) of the specific operating system
(if any) on which the executable work runs, or a compiler used to
produce the work, or an object code interpreter used to run it.

  The "Corresponding Source" for a work in object code form means all
the source code needed to generate, install, and (for an executable
work) run the object code and to modify the work, including scripts to
control those activities.  However, it does not include the work's
System Libraries, or general-purpose tools or generally available free
programs which are used unmodified in performing those activities but
which are not part of the work.  For example, Corresponding Source
includes interface definition files associated with source files for
the work, and the source code for shared libraries and dynamically
linked subprograms that the work is specifically designed to require,
such as by intimate data communication or control flow between those
subprograms and other parts of the work.

  The Corresponding Source need not include anything that users
can regenerate automatically from other parts of the Corresponding

  The Corresponding Source for a work in source code form is that
same work.

  2. Basic Permissions.

  All rights granted under this License are granted for the term of
copyright on the Program, and are irrevocable provided the stated
conditions are met.  This License explicitly affirms your unlimited
permission to run the unmodified Program.  The output from running a
covered work is covered by this License only if the output, given its
content, constitutes a covered work.  This License acknowledges your
rights of fair use or other equivalent, as provided by copyright law.

  You may make, run and propagate covered works that you do not
convey, without conditions so long as your license otherwise remains
in force.  You may convey covered works to others for the sole purpose
of having them make modifications exclusively for you, or provide you
with facilities for running those works, provided that you comply with
the terms of this License in conveying all material for which you do
not control copyright.  Those thus making or running the covered works
for you must do so exclusively on your behalf, under your direction
and control, on terms that prohibit them from making any copies of
your copyrighted material outside their relationship with you.

  Conveying under any other circumstances is permitted solely under
the conditions stated below.  Sublicensing is not allowed; section 10
makes it unnecessary.

  3. Protecting Users' Legal Rights From Anti-Circumvention Law.

  No covered work shall be deemed part of an effective technological
measure under any applicable law fulfilling obligations under article
11 of the WIPO copyright treaty adopted on 20 December 1996, or
similar laws prohibiting or restricting circumvention of such

  When you convey a covered work, you waive any legal power to forbid
circumvention of technological measures to the extent such circumvention
is effected by exercising rights under this License with respect to
the covered work, and you disclaim any intention to limit operation or
modification of the work as a means of enforcing, against the work's
users, your or third parties' legal rights to forbid circumvention of
technological measures.

  4. Conveying Verbatim Copies.

  You may convey verbatim copies of the Program's source code as you
receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice;
keep intact all notices stating that this License and any
non-permissive terms added in accord with section 7 apply to the code;
keep intact all notices of the absence of any warranty; and give all
recipients a copy of this License along with the Program.

  You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you convey,
and you may offer support or warranty protection for a fee.

  5. Conveying Modified Source Versions.

  You may convey a work based on the Program, or the modifications to
produce it from the Program, in the form of source code under the
terms of section 4, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

    a) The work must carry prominent notices stating that you modified
    it, and giving a relevant date.

    b) The work must carry prominent notices stating that it is
    released under this License and any conditions added under section
    7.  This requirement modifies the requirement in section 4 to
    "keep intact all notices".

    c) You must license the entire work, as a whole, under this
    License to anyone who comes into possession of a copy.  This
    License will therefore apply, along with any applicable section 7
    additional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts,
    regardless of how they are packaged.  This License gives no
    permission to license the work in any other way, but it does not
    invalidate such permission if you have separately received it.

    d) If the work has interactive user interfaces, each must display
    Appropriate Legal Notices; however, if the Program has interactive
    interfaces that do not display Appropriate Legal Notices, your
    work need not make them do so.

  A compilation of a covered work with other separate and independent
works, which are not by their nature extensions of the covered work,
and which are not combined with it such as to form a larger program,
in or on a volume of a storage or distribution medium, is called an
"aggregate" if the compilation and its resulting copyright are not
used to limit the access or legal rights of the compilation's users
beyond what the individual works permit.  Inclusion of a covered work
in an aggregate does not cause this License to apply to the other
parts of the aggregate.

  6. Conveying Non-Source Forms.

  You may convey a covered work in object code form under the terms
of sections 4 and 5, provided that you also convey the
machine-readable Corresponding Source under the terms of this License,
in one of these ways:

    a) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
    (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by the
    Corresponding Source fixed on a durable physical medium
    customarily used for software interchange.

    b) Convey the object code in, or embodied in, a physical product
    (including a physical distribution medium), accompanied by a
    written offer, valid for at least three years and valid for as
    long as you offer spare parts or customer support for that product
    model, to give anyone who possesses the object code either (1) a
    copy of the Corresponding Source for all the software in the
    product that is covered by this License, on a durable physical
    medium customarily used for software interchange, for a price no
    more than your reasonable cost of physically performing this
    conveying of source, or (2) access to copy the
    Corresponding Source from a network server at no charge.

    c) Convey individual copies of the object code with a copy of the
    written offer to provide the Corresponding Source.  This
    alternative is allowed only occasionally and noncommercially, and
    only if you received the object code with such an offer, in accord
    with subsection 6b.

    d) Convey the object code by offering access from a designated
    place (gratis or for a charge), and offer equivalent access to the
    Corresponding Source in the same way through the same place at no
    further charge.  You need not require recipients to copy the
    Corresponding Source along with the object code.  If the place to
    copy the object code is a network server, the Corresponding Source
    may be on a different server (operated by you or a third party)
    that supports equivalent copying facilities, provided you maintain
    clear directions next to the object code saying where to find the
    Corresponding Source.  Regardless of what server hosts the
    Corresponding Source, you remain obligated to ensure that it is
    available for as long as needed to satisfy these requirements.

    e) Convey the object code using peer-to-peer transmission, provided
    you inform other peers where the object code and Corresponding
    Source of the work are being offered to the general public at no
    charge under subsection 6d.

  A separable portion of the object code, whose source code is excluded
from the Corresponding Source as a System Library, need not be
included in conveying the object code work.

  A "User Product" is either (1) a "consumer product", which means any
tangible personal property which is normally used for personal, family,
or household purposes, or (2) anything designed or sold for incorporation
into a dwelling.  In determining whether a product is a consumer product,
doubtful cases shall be resolved in favor of coverage.  For a particular
product received by a particular user, "normally used" refers to a
typical or common use of that class of product, regardless of the status
of the particular user or of the way in which the particular user
actually uses, or expects or is expected to use, the product.  A product
is a consumer product regardless of whether the product has substantial
commercial, industrial or non-consumer uses, unless such uses represent
the only significant mode of use of the product.

  "Installation Information" for a User Product means any methods,
procedures, authorization keys, or other information required to install
and execute modified versions of a covered work in that User Product from
a modified version of its Corresponding Source.  The information must
suffice to ensure that the continued functioning of the modified object
code is in no case prevented or interfered with solely because
modification has been made.

  If you convey an object code work under this section in, or with, or
specifically for use in, a User Product, and the conveying occurs as
part of a transaction in which the right of possession and use of the
User Product is transferred to the recipient in perpetuity or for a
fixed term (regardless of how the transaction is characterized), the
Corresponding Source conveyed under this section must be accompanied
by the Installation Information.  But this requirement does not apply
if neither you nor any third party retains the ability to install
modified object code on the User Product (for example, the work has
been installed in ROM).

  The requirement to provide Installation Information does not include a
requirement to continue to provide support service, warranty, or updates
for a work that has been modified or installed by the recipient, or for
the User Product in which it has been modified or installed.  Access to a
network may be denied when the modification itself materially and
adversely affects the operation of the network or violates the rules and
protocols for communication across the network.

  Corresponding Source conveyed, and Installation Information provided,
in accord with this section must be in a format that is publicly
documented (and with an implementation available to the public in
source code form), and must require no special password or key for
unpacking, reading or copying.

  7. Additional Terms.

  "Additional permissions" are terms that supplement the terms of this
License by making exceptions from one or more of its conditions.
Additional permissions that are applicable to the entire Program shall
be treated as though they were included in this License, to the extent
that they are valid under applicable law.  If additional permissions
apply only to part of the Program, that part may be used separately
under those permissions, but the entire Program remains governed by
this License without regard to the additional permissions.

  When you convey a copy of a covered work, you may at your option
remove any additional permissions from that copy, or from any part of
it.  (Additional permissions may be written to require their own
removal in certain cases when you modify the work.)  You may place
additional permissions on material, added by you to a covered work,
for which you have or can give appropriate copyright permission.

  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, for material you
add to a covered work, you may (if authorized by the copyright holders of
that material) supplement the terms of this License with terms:

    a) Disclaiming warranty or limiting liability differently from the
    terms of sections 15 and 16 of this License; or

    b) Requiring preservation of specified reasonable legal notices or
    author attributions in that material or in the Appropriate Legal
    Notices displayed by works containing it; or

    c) Prohibiting misrepresentation of the origin of that material, or
    requiring that modified versions of such material be marked in
    reasonable ways as different from the original version; or

    d) Limiting the use for publicity purposes of names of licensors or
    authors of the material; or

    e) Declining to grant rights under trademark law for use of some
    trade names, trademarks, or service marks; or

    f) Requiring indemnification of licensors and authors of that
    material by anyone who conveys the material (or modified versions of
    it) with contractual assumptions of liability to the recipient, for
    any liability that these contractual assumptions directly impose on
    those licensors and authors.

  All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further
restrictions" within the meaning of section 10.  If the Program as you
received it, or any part of it, contains a notice stating that it is
governed by this License along with a term that is a further
restriction, you may remove that term.  If a license document contains
a further restriction but permits relicensing or conveying under this
License, you may add to a covered work material governed by the terms
of that license document, provided that the further restriction does
not survive such relicensing or conveying.

  If you add terms to a covered work in accord with this section, you
must place, in the relevant source files, a statement of the
additional terms that apply to those files, or a notice indicating
where to find the applicable terms.

  Additional terms, permissive or non-permissive, may be stated in the
form of a separately written license, or stated as exceptions;
the above requirements apply either way.

  8. Termination.

  You may not propagate or modify a covered work except as expressly
provided under this License.  Any attempt otherwise to propagate or
modify it is void, and will automatically terminate your rights under
this License (including any patent licenses granted under the third
paragraph of section 11).

  However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your
license from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a)
provisionally, unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and
finally terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright
holder fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means
prior to 60 days after the cessation.

  Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
your receipt of the notice.

  Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
reinstated, you do not qualify to receive new licenses for the same
material under section 10.

  9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

  You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
run a copy of the Program.  Ancillary propagation of a covered work
occurring solely as a consequence of using peer-to-peer transmission
to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance.  However,
nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or
modify any covered work.  These actions infringe copyright if you do
not accept this License.  Therefore, by modifying or propagating a
covered work, you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so.

  10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

  Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
receives a license from the original licensors, to run, modify and
propagate that work, subject to this License.  You are not responsible
for enforcing compliance by third parties with this License.

  An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an
organization, or substantially all assets of one, or subdividing an
organization, or merging organizations.  If propagation of a covered
work results from an entity transaction, each party to that
transaction who receives a copy of the work also receives whatever
licenses to the work the party's predecessor in interest had or could
give under the previous paragraph, plus a right to possession of the
Corresponding Source of the work from the predecessor in interest, if
the predecessor has it or can get it with reasonable efforts.

  You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
rights granted or affirmed under this License.  For example, you may
not impose a license fee, royalty, or other charge for exercise of
rights granted under this License, and you may not initiate litigation
(including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that
any patent claim is infringed by making, using, selling, offering for
sale, or importing the Program or any portion of it.

  11. Patents.

  A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based.  The
work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".

  A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
hereafter acquired, that would be infringed by some manner, permitted
by this License, of making, using, or selling its contributor version,
but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
consequence of further modification of the contributor version.  For
purposes of this definition, "control" includes the right to grant
patent sublicenses in a manner consistent with the requirements of
this License.

  Each contributor grants you a non-exclusive, worldwide, royalty-free
patent license under the contributor's essential patent claims, to
make, use, sell, offer for sale, import and otherwise run, modify and
propagate the contents of its contributor version.

  In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express
agreement or commitment, however denominated, not to enforce a patent
(such as an express permission to practice a patent or covenant not to
sue for patent infringement).  To "grant" such a patent license to a
party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a
patent against the party.

  If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
to copy, free of charge and under the terms of this License, through a
publicly available network server or other readily accessible means,
then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
patent license for this particular work, or (3) arrange, in a manner
consistent with the requirements of this License, to extend the patent
license to downstream recipients.  "Knowingly relying" means you have
actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
country that you have reason to believe are valid.

  If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
arrangement, you convey, or propagate by procuring conveyance of, a
covered work, and grant a patent license to some of the parties
receiving the covered work authorizing them to use, propagate, modify
or convey a specific copy of the covered work, then the patent license
you grant is automatically extended to all recipients of the covered
work and works based on it.

  A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
the scope of its coverage, prohibits the exercise of, or is
conditioned on the non-exercise of one or more of the rights that are
specifically granted under this License.  You may not convey a covered
work if you are a party to an arrangement with a third party that is
in the business of distributing software, under which you make payment
to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying
the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
parties who would receive the covered work from you, a discriminatory
patent license (a) in connection with copies of the covered work
conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily
for and in connection with specific products or compilations that
contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

  Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

  If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot convey a
covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
not convey it at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single
combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms of this
License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License,
section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the
combination as such.

  14. Revised Versions of this License.

  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
the GNU General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

  Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General
Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
version or of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of the
GNU General Public License, you may choose any version ever published
by the Free Software Foundation.

  If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's
public statement of acceptance of a version permanently authorizes you
to choose that version for the Program.

  Later license versions may give you additional or different
permissions.  However, no additional obligations are imposed on any
author or copyright holder as a result of your choosing to follow a
later version.

  15. Disclaimer of Warranty.


  16. Limitation of Liability.


  17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

  If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
copy of the Program in return for a fee.

                     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

            How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

    <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

  If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

    <program>  Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
    This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
    This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
    under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your program's commands
might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".

  You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see

  The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you
may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.  But first, please read

A  => bin/make +114 -0
@@ 1,114 @@

# cosine.blue -- static site generator
# Copyright (C) 2020  Gregory L Chamberlain <greg@cosine.blue>

# This file is part of cosine.blue.
# cosine.blue is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
# cosine.blue is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
# WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with cosine.blue.  If not, see
# <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

. share/lib.sh

set -eu

html() {
    . "$1"
    echo '<!DOCTYPE html>'
            echo '<meta charset="UTF-8">'
            x title "${pagetitle:-$title}"
            x style < share/style.css
        } | x head
            x small < share/header.html | x header
            x main
            x small < share/footer.html | x footer
        } | x body
    } | x html

article() {
    . "$1"
        x h1 "$title"
        [ -n "$subtitle" ] && x p "$subtitle"
        [ -n "$date" ] && x p "$date"
        [ -n "$cover_img_src" ] && x "img src=\"$cover_img_src\""
    } | x header
    x article

rss_item() {
    . env/"$basename".sh
    x title "${pagetitle:-$title}"
    x author "greg@cosine.blue (Gregory Chamberlain)"
    x pubDate "$date"
    x guid "https://cosine.blue/${basename%.md}.html"
    case "$1" in
        *.md.sh) sh | markdown ;;
        *.md) markdown ;;
        *.html.sh) sh ;;
        *.html) cat ;;
    esac < "$1" | sed 's/&/\&amp;/g;s/</\&lt;/g;s/>/\&gt;/g' | x description

rss() {
        x title cosine.blue
        x link https://cosine.blue
        x description 'Blog by Gregory Chamberlain.'
        x webMaster "greg@cosine.blue (Gregory Chamberlain)"
        x copyright 'CC BY-SA 4.0'
        for item do
            [ -f "$item" ] || continue
            rss_item "$item" | x item
    } | x channel | x 'rss version="2.0"'


mkdir -p www

rss src/article/* > www/rss.xml

gpg --export -a "$EMAIL" > www/pubkey-gc.txt

for src in src/* src/*/*
    [ -f "$src" ] || continue
    case $src in
            markdown < "$src" |
                article env/"$bn".sh |
                html env/"$bn".sh> www/"${bn%.md}.html"
            markdown < "$src" | html env/"$bn".sh > www/"${bn%.md}.html"
            sh < "$src" | html env/"$bn".sh > www/"${bn%.sh}"
            html < "$src" > www/"$bn"
            cp -f "$src" www

A  => bin/markdown +1 -0
@@ 1,1 @@
\ No newline at end of file

A  => env/2019-06-26-rc-shell-setup.md.sh +16 -0
@@ 1,16 @@
title="Guide to Installing the <em>rc</em> Shell with Line-Editing in

pagetitle="Guide to Installing the rc Shell with Line-Editing in

subtitle="How to compile and install Byron Rakitzis’ reimplementation
of the <em>rc</em> shell from Plan 9—an expressive and thoughtfully
designed alternative to the ubiquitous Bourne-compatible shells of

author="Gregory Chamberlain"

date="Wednesday, 26 June 2019"


A  => env/2019-09-06-kakoune.md.sh +11 -0
@@ 1,11 @@
title="The Vim-Inspired Editor with a Linguistic Twist"

subtitle="A Vim convert’s commentary on Kakoune, the
selection-oriented editor focused on interactivity and incremental
results—or mawww’s experiment for a better code editor."

author="Gregory Chamberlain"

date="Friday, 6 September 2019"


A  => env/2020-03-28-libreoffice-concatenate.md.sh +11 -0
@@ 1,11 @@
title="How I Merged 36 Spreadsheets In 2 Minutes—LibreOffice on the

subtitle="A brief anecdote in which I use a spreadsheet application to
manipulate lots of spreadsheets without actually opening any spreadsheets"

author="Gregory Chamberlain"

date="Saturday, 28 March 2020"


A  => env/index.html.sh.sh +1 -0
@@ 1,1 @@

A  => env/licence.md.sh +1 -0
@@ 1,1 @@
title='cosine.blue: License'

A  => share/footer.html +7 -0
@@ 1,7 @@
  Copyright 2019-2020 Gregory Chamberlain. All original content is
  <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/">CC BY-SA 4.0</a>
  <a href="https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html">GPLv3</a>
  &mdash; see <a href="licence.html">licence</a>.

A  => share/header.html +29 -0
@@ 1,29 @@
  <h1><a href="index.html">cosine.blue</a></h1>
  <p>Blog by Gregory Chamberlain.</p>
        <td><a href="rss.xml" title="Subscribe to cosine.blue via RSS">rss.xml</a></td>
      <tr><td>Email</td><td><a href="mailto:greg@cosine.blue"
                               title="Contact the site author and maintainer">greg@cosine.blue</a></td></tr>
          <a href="pubkey-gc.txt"
             title="Save this file as, say, pubkey-gc.txt, then run “gpg --import pubkey-gc.txt”">B271 F6B8 7BBF</a>
        <td><a href="https://sr.ht/~chambln" title="Source code repositories">~chambln</a></td>
        <td><a href="https://mastodon.social/@chambln" title="Federated & decentralised microblog">@chambln</a></td>

A  => share/lib.sh +22 -0
@@ 1,22 @@
# cosine.blue -- static site generator
# Copyright (C) 2020  Gregory L Chamberlain <greg@cosine.blue>

# This file is part of cosine.blue.
# cosine.blue is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
# cosine.blue is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
# WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with cosine.blue.  If not, see
# <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

x() {
    printf '<%s>%s</%s>\n' "$1" "${2:-$(cat)}" "${1%% *}"

A  => share/style.css +243 -0
@@ 1,243 @@
 * cosine.blue -- static site generator
 * Copyright (C) 2020  Gregory L Chamberlain <greg@cosine.blue>
 * This file is part of cosine.blue.
 * cosine.blue is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 * cosine.blue is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
 * WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * General Public License for more details.
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with cosine.blue.  If not, see
 * <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

:root {
    --fg: black;
    --fg-faded: #56504a;        /* 7:1 on #f1f1f1 */
    --fg-faded-faded: #756d64;  /* 4.5 on linen */
    --fg-blue: #0000bb;         /* 10:1 on linen */
    --fg-purple: #4d3cb9;       /* 7:1 on linen */
    --fg-red: #a21616;          /* 7:1 on linen */

    --bg: white;
    --bg-faded: #f1f1f1;        /* 7:1 behind #56504a */
    --bg-faded-faded: #959595;  /* 7:1 behind black */
    --bg-blue: #b5d0ff;         /* 16:1 behind black */
    --bg-blue-fg: #26324A;      /* 8:1 on #b5d0ff */
    --bg-red: lightcoral;       /* 8:1 behind black */
    --bg-yellow: gold;

    --border-yellow: gold;

    --bg-kbd: linen;            /* 18:1 behind black */
    --fg-kbd: #56504a;          /* 7:1 on linen */
    --border-kbd: #baaa9a;      /* 2:1 on linen */

@media (prefers-color-scheme: dark) {
    :root {
        --fg: white;
        --fg-faded: #a6a6a6;       /* 7:1 on #1b1b1b */
        --fg-faded-faded: #757575; /* 4.5 on black */
        --fg-blue: #7391ed;     /* Like royalblue but 7:1 on black */
        --fg-purple: #968bdd;   /* Like slateblue but 7:1 on black*/

        --bg: black;
        --bg-faded: #1b1b1b;             /* 7:1 behind #a6a6a6 */
        --bg-faded-faded: #595959; /* 7:1 behind white */
        --bg-blue: #10387c;        /* 10:1 behind white */
        --bg-blue-fg: #b8cff6;      /* 7:1 on #10387c */
        --bg-red: #844747;         /* 7:1 behind white */
        --bg-yellow: #665700;      /* 7:1 behind white */

        --border-yellow: #d1b200; /* 10:1 on black, */

        --bg-kbd: #424867;      /* 7:1 behind #e4e4e4 */
        --fg-kbd: #e4e4e4;      /* 7:1 on #424867 */
        --border-kbd: #212b42;  /* 2:1 on black */

:root {
    font-size: 120%;
    font-family: sans-serif;
    line-height: 1.4;

    color: var(--fg);
    background-color: var(--bg);

    width: 100%;
    margin: 0 auto;
    max-width: 32em;

@media (min-width: 52em) {
    :root {
        width: 95%;
        margin: 0 auto;
        max-width: 52em;

    /* Side notes */
    body {
        width: 66%;
        float: right;
    small {
        width: 38%;
        float: left;
        clear: both;
        margin-left: -44%;
        padding: 0.5em 0;

    /* Prevent side notes from nesting */
    small small {
        width: 100%;
        float: none;
        clear: none;
        margin-left: auto;

    /* Site header */
    main > header small {
        margin-top: 0;
    main > header table {
        width: 100%;
    main > header tr {
        display: flex;
        justify-content: space-between;

    /* Put section heading symbols (§, #, ...) in the left margin */
    article h1::before,
    article h2::before,
    article h3::before {
        float: right;
        height: 0;
        margin-right: calc(100% + 0.4em);

small {
    color: var(--fg-fade);

img, figure {
    width: 100%;
    margin: 0;
caption, figcaption {
    font-size: smaller;
    background-color: var(--bg-faded);
    padding: 0.7em 1.2em;
    border-radius: 0.1em;

h1 { font-size: 1.5em; }
h2 { font-size: 1.3em; }
h3 { font-size: 1.1em; }
article h1::before { content: "§ "; }
article h2::before { content: "# "; }
article h3::before { content: "∴ "; }
article h1::before,
article h2::before,
article h3::before {
    color: var(--fg-faded-faded);
article h1:target::before,
article h2:target::before,
article h3:target::before {
    color: var(--border-yellow);
article::after {
    content: "∎";
    float: right;
    position: relative;
    top: -2em;

header h1 a {
    text-decoration: none;
a {
    color: var(--fg-blue);
a:visited {
    color: var(--fg-purple);
a:hover, a:focus {
    color: var(--bg-blue-fg);
    background-color: var(--bg-blue);
    text-decoration: none;
a:active {
    color: var(--fg);
    background-color: var(--bg-red);
    text-decoration: none;

mark, :target {
    background: none;
    border: 0.12em dashed var(--border-yellow);

kbd {
    color: var(--fg-kbd);
    background-color: var(--bg-kbd);
    border: 1px solid var(--border-kbd);
    border-bottom-width: 2px;
    border-radius: 3px;
    padding: 0 0.15em;
    margin: 0 -0.15em;

kbd, code {
    font-size: 0.9rem;

pre {
    overflow: auto;

article table {
    margin-left: auto;
    margin-right: auto;
td {
    padding-right: 0.5em;

#archive {
    list-style-type: none;
    padding-left: 0;
#archive li {
    margin-bottom: 2em;

hr {
    font: 2rem serif;
    border: none;
    border-top: 2px solid var(--fg-faded-faded);
    text-align: center;
    height: 0.5em;
    margin-top: 1em;
hr::after {
    position: relative;
    top: -0.68em;
    content: "∫";
    background-color: var(--bg);

A  => src/article/2019-06-26-rc-shell-setup.md +172 -0
@@ 1,172 @@
# Introduction

This article demonstrates how to download, compile and install Byron
Rakitzis’ reimplementation of the *rc* shell, originally from the Plan 9
system. The first section is a brief history of *rc* and some of its
newer forms, but feel free to skip ahead to the actual guide.

# History

Around 10 years or so after creating Unix, the Computing Science
Research Center at AT\&T Bell Labs developed the
[Plan 9](https://9p.io/plan9) operating system, which further riffed on
the Unix philosophy. It was only used internally at Bell Labs until the
early ’90s when they made it available to universities and businesses.
Eventually they released it under an open-source license. Today it’s
only really used by hobbyists and people learning about operating

Anyway, *rc* (short for *“run commands”*) was the system’s canonical
command-line interpreter, and it’s ace. Its syntax is much simpler than
that of the established Bourne shell from which Bash and most other
contemporary shells derive; and <em>rc</em>’s handling of strings and
special characters makes it less error-prone overall.

Many tools from Plan 9, including its fantastic *rc* shell, have been
ported to Unix-like systems under the name *[Plan 9 from User
Space](https://9fans.github.io/plan9port)* (a.k.a. plan9port). A subset
of these programs packaged as [9base](http://tools.suckless.org/9base/)
is provided by Suckless. The two are probably available from your
distribution’s package repository (but keep reading).

An independent project by Byron Rakitzis saw a reimplementation of the
*rc* shell for Unix-like systems. His implementation differs very
slightly from the *true* Plan 9 shell (as ported by plan9port), but
before compiling it can be linked with line-editing libraries such as
GNU readline, which is why I much prefer it for interactive use.

# Install the *rc* shell

I recommend installing [Byron Rakitzis’ reimplementation of
*rc*](https://github.com/rakitzis/rc "rc shell -- independent re-implementation for Unix of the Plan 9 shell (from circa 1992)."),
which provides such nice features as **line editing** and **tab

## Compile from source

Clone the GitHub repository and run the bootstrap script:

``` bash
git clone https://github.com/rakitzis/rc
cd rc

This generates an `INSTALL` file with detailed instructions. Then
configure and build like so:

``` bash
sh configure --with-edit=readline
sudo make install

You now have *rc* installed on your machine. To uninstall, use `sudo
make uninstall` in that same directory.

# Start the *rc* shell

You may need to log out and back in for it to work. Start the shell by

``` bash

or, in order to have *rc* behave as a **login shell**, pass the `-l`

``` bash
rc -l

As described in the manual (`man rc`), this tells *rc* to source
`$home/.rcrc` when it starts. Much like one’s
you might like to populate that file with commands that

  - change your `$prompt`
  - change your `$path`
  - define functions,
  - assign environment variables,
  - do whatever else.

<small>In <em>rc</em>, the home directory is stored in both the
lowercase variable <code>\$home</code> and the usual uppercase
environment variable <code>\$HOME</code>.  Also, the built-in
<code>\$path</code> variable is a list of directories that is kept in
sync with the usual <code>\$PATH</code> environment variable, a
colon-separated string of the same directories.</small>

The default prompt is a semicolon, which seems an odd choice. According
to the manual,

> \[t\]he reason for this is that it enables an *rc* user to grab
> commands from previous lines using a mouse, and to present them to
> *rc* for re-interpretation; the semicolon prompt is simply ignored by
> *rc*.

To quit the shell, press <kbd>Ctrl</kbd> \+ <kbd>d</kbd> or type `exit`.

# Make *rc* your login shell

When you open your terminal, the first program it runs is your **login
shell**. On most Linux machines, users’ login shells are set to Bash by
default. Changing your login shell is easy to do.

Firstly, add *rc*’s full path to your machine’s list of approved login
shells. This must be done as root, as so:

``` bash
sudo su -c 'which rc >> /etc/shells'

Let’s do this next step in an *rc* shell, demonstrating its backquote
substitution (analogous to the Bourne shell’s command substitution). And
we’ll use the built-in
[`chsh`](http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man1/chsh.1.html) utility:

``` bash
chsh $USER --shell `{ which rc }

That’s it\! Next time you log in as the same user, your tty and
terminals will start with the *rc* shell. This has had no effect on
other users; so if your *rc* executable breaks or disappears, you can
simply log in as root and change your shell back to Bash or what have

## Make use of run commands

Many users like to use `la` as an alias to `ls -A`. To implement this in
our *rc*, let’s define a function in **`$home/.rcrc`**.

<small>Unlike the Bourne shell, <em>rc</em> does not support aliases.
Use functions instead\! The <code>builtin</code> keyword should be
used to avoid infinite recursion.</small>

``` bash
fn la { ls -A $* }

In short, `fn` is the keyword for creating functions, and the braces
contain the sequence of commands the function shall execute. Arguments
of the function are stored in `$1`, `$2`, etc., but `$*` stores the list
of *all* arguments given, which we humbly and helpfully pass straight
through to the `ls` program.

I found that I had to log out and back in for the updated `$home/.rcrc`
to be sourced automatically; starting a new instance of *rc* was not
enough. But we can source the new commands manually with the `.`
built-in, as so:

``` bash
. $home/.rcrc

or, if we’re already in the home directory, simply

``` bash
. .rcrc

A  => src/article/2019-09-06-kakoune.md +838 -0
@@ 1,838 @@
# What is Kakoune?

[Kakoune](http://kakoune.org/) (/kə'kuːn/) describes itself as <q>a code
editor heavily inspired by Vim</q>, and like the venerable *vi*(1) and its
successor, its internal model interprets the user’s keystrokes like
utterances of a sort-of <q>text-editing language</q>, but with a certain
linguistic twist (more on that later). Available—for reasons that will
later become clear—only on Unix-like systems, it was written in C++ by
[Maxime Coste](https://github.com/mawww), has a clean [code
base](https://github.com/mawww/kakoune) and runs like the wind in a
terminal. It is released under the Unlicense, which is [compatible with
the GPL](https://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html#Unlicense).

<small>Skip ahead to [Using Kakoune](#using-kakoune) if you just
want to get stuck in right way.</small>

As a long time Vim user, Kakoune quickly piqued my interest and before
long I was convinced that it was the editor for me, and not just because
it’s incredibly obscure. Its grammatical reshuffle and wise design
principles put it above the rest for me, and I’m starting to think it’s
more than just a comfy nook in which to hide from the large and looming
cold hand of Emacs, the curious GNUisance (sorry) that swings
periodically over my shoulder whispering <q>we have Org mode\! And Lisp\!</q>
Maybe next year, Emacs. I really want to like you.

But that’s an [essay for another day](rss.xml "Subscribe to
cosine.blue via RSS feed").

Here I endeavour to introduce the reader to Kakoune and present my
thoughts on its merits and misfits in the context of a terminal-based,
keyboard-driven workflow. I make frequent comparisons to Vim, and the
reader would benefit from some experience with a modal editor such
thereas. That said, those uninitiated in modal editors might find that
Kakoune’s forgiving mechanics place it among the easier to learn.

# Do we really need another Vim clone?

This is neither a fork nor clone.

In an effort to provide incremental results and interactivity (words
whose meaning became clear once I met the <kbd>s</kbd> key), the
<q>selection-oriented code editor</q> takes a bold step away from some of
the Vim interactions familiar to many of us, while remaining competitive
keystroke-for-keystroke, millisecond-for-precious-millisecond.

Its author cites the Unix philosophy as one of Kakoune’s virtues, and
certainly I would agree that it trumps Vim in adherence thereto
(examples of this to come); and that is not to say it lacks enough
features. Indeed it has built-in wrappers around Git, *grep*, *make*,
and *man*, works with ctags, conforming linters and other things.


Vim is difficult to extend, not least because of the idiosyncratic
train wreck of a language that is VimL (or Vim Script, or
whatever). Conversely, Kakoune stands by its decision not to complicate
its language with flow control and whatnot, and instead relies on
languages we already know through its `%sh{…}` blocks. And although
Kakoune is very usable out-of-the-box, one look at the [plugins
page](https://kakoune.org/plugins.html) is enough to make any purist

  You can even whip some Perl or Ruby or anything you like into
  an <code>%sh{…}</code> block; in fact&mdash;that’s how some of the
  more complex plugins are built.

## So what’s the twist?

Whereas vi’s keystroke language follows **verb-object** order, Kakoune
inverts that by following **object-verb** order. In real terms, that
means you make a selection (object) before deciding what to do (verb)
with it. The object might be a character, word, sentence, paragraph,
parenthetical, regular expression, you name it; the verb might be
**delete**, **yank** (copy), **change**, **indent**, or even
transformative operations like **lint**, **format**, **uppercase**, etc.
In Kakoune, it is with this reversed grammar, this postfix notation,
that you interactively sweep up a group or groups of characters before
acting on them. That way if your object isn’t quite right, you can
immediately correct it without having to undo and redo your verb.

I like to think Kakoune’s <q>keystrokes as a text editing language</q> model,
in comparison to that of vi, is what linguists would call an
*[anastrophe](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anastrophe)*—specifically an
object-verb inversion.

  <img src="barn-swallow.jpg" alt="Photo of a barn swallow" />
      by <a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Cajay">JJ
      Cadiz</a>, <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/deed.en">CC
      BY-SA 3.0</a>.
    Subject-object-verb order can be seen in this anastrophic idiom,
    <q>one swallow does not a summer make</q>.

To English speakers, it might seem unnatural to place the verb last,
but about 45% of documented natural languages have subject-object-verb
order, including Latin, Ancient Greek, Japanese and Korean.

## Isn’t that just Vim’s visual mode?

Well, yes, but Vim’s visual mode is a malformed afterthought in
comparison, and you have to hit <kbd>v</kbd> every time you want to use
it. Kakoune is visual mode done right, but not just that; it permits—nay
thrives on—multiple selections (thousands if you wish but typically just
a few) and provides some really neat tools to narrow them down
incrementally, [as we’ll see later](#narrowing).

This paradigm shift necessitated a revised set of key mappings, which
Kakoune implements rather well if you don’t mind using
<kbd>Alt</kbd>. Holding <kbd>Shift</kbd> means causes the usual motion
keys to <em>extend</em> the selection, so unlike in Vim, traversing
whitespace-separated words means holding <kbd>Alt</kbd> instead.  And
what about text objects? How do you select in and around words,
parenthetical pairs, paragraphs, and so on? In Vim you begin by
hitting <kbd>v</kbd> to enter visual mode followed by <kbd>a</kbd> or
<kbd>i</kbd>. In Kakoune, however, normal mode *is* visual mode so
instead <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>a</kbd> and
<kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>i</kbd> are used to avoid conflict with the
normal meanings of <kbd>a</kbd> and <kbd>i</kbd> (append and insert).

      <td>Delete word</td>
      <td>Delete up to whitespace</td>
      <td>Delete inner word</td>
      <td>Delete back four words</td>
      <td><code>BBBBd or4Bd</code></td>
      <td>Change to end of word</td>
      <td>Yank a sentence</td>
      <td>Change to next occurrence of ‘x’</td>
      <td>Select to next occurrence of ‘x’</td>
      <td>Indent three lines down</td>
      <td>Unindent within braces</td>
    Keystroke idioms in Kakoune and compared to Vim.

Admittedly, from the table above, my new favourite editor looks to be
more complicated than Vim. Perhaps that’s true in some sense, but
Kakoune’s strengths lie in its forgiving interactivity and incremental
results, which are best experienced first hand.

<h1 id='using-kakoune'>Using Kakoune</h1>

At this point, I encourage the reader to play around with Kakoune. Have
fun with it\! Install it with your package manager or build it from
[source](https://github.com/mawww/kakoune). Skim over the manual page
for *kak*(1) and open a file in the terminal like so

``` bash
kak example.cc

Make sure your terminal emulator supports alt key combinations and isn’t
overriding them.

Have a look through `:doc faq`, `:doc keys` (then `:doc keymap` for the
cheat sheet), and `:doc commands`, experimenting as you go. That said,
the built-in help system is verbose and won’t exactly hold your hand.
The [Kakoune wiki](https://github.com/mawww/kakoune/wiki) is more
navigable, and [this
is particularly helpful for learning the basics. You can edit files and
manipulate buffers with the following commands

  - `:edit <filename>`
  - `:buffer <name>`
  - `:buffer-next` and `:buffer-previous`

Use `:delete-buffer` to delete a buffer. Write to disk with `:w` and
quit with `:q`. As you enter commands, you’ll see an ASCII art Clippy
show up in a box with the relevant documentation. Commands are
self-documenting, and many have a `-docstring` argument in their
definition which enriches these info boxes.

Depending on your terminal colours, things might be unreadable. If so,
or otherwise, pick a colour scheme using the `:colorscheme <name>`
command. Try not to spend too many of your precious Earth seconds
fussing over which is best, as I did.

Kakoune shares a good deal of elementary keys with Vim, which eases
the learning curve for veterans thereof. Of the lowercase letters,
only <kbd>s</kbd>, <kbd>z</kbd>, <kbd>x</kbd>, <kbd>v</kbd> and
<kbd>m</kbd> have completely new jobs. Hitting the <kbd>a</kbd> key,
<kbd>i</kbd> or <kbd>o</kbd> or their shifted equivalents will enter
insert mode in much the same way as in vi;
<kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>Q</kbd> and <kbd>q</kbd> handle macros; press
<kbd>u</kbd> will undo (some will rejoice it’s
<kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>U</kbd>, not
<kbd>Ctrl</kbd> \+ <kbd>r</kbd>, to redo); I could go on. As you’d
expect, many motion keys accept counts, as in
<kbd>4</kbd> \+ <kbd>w</kbd> to traverse four words.

## Motions

Get the hang of using motions&mdash;<kbd>h</kbd>, <kbd>j</kbd>,
<kbd>k</kbd>, <kbd>l</kbd>, <kbd>w</kbd>, <kbd>e</kbd>, <kbd>b</kbd>,
<kbd>f</kbd> and <kbd>t</kbd> for starters&mdash;and their majuscule
equivalents; holdshift to extend the selection you already have; hit
<kbd>;</kbd> to reset the selection range back to the cursor
itself. Then of course <kbd>r</kbd>, <kbd>d</kbd> and <kbd>c</kbd> are
your destructive verbs, while <kbd>\~</kbd>, <kbd>\`</kbd>,
<kbd>\<</kbd> and <kbd>\></kbd> are transformative; <kbd>i</kbd>,
<kbd>a</kbd>, <kbd>o</kbd> and <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>O</kbd>
respect the selection range (try it to see what I mean), as do
<kbd>y</kbd> (yank/copy) and <kbd>p</kbd> (paste). Try combining some
of these with <kbd>Alt</kbd> and see what happens. Try
<kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>i</kbd> or <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>a</kbd> and
read the info box to see what you can do with them; same goes for
<kbd>\[</kbd> and <kbd>\]</kbd>, and their shifted equivalents
<kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>{</kbd> and <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>}</kbd>
which, predictably, extend the selection.

Press <kbd>g</kbd> and you’ll see the ‘goto’ menu, which shows you the
handful of keys that could complete the key-stroke sequence. Familiarise
yourself with some of these.

      <th><q>Go to …</q></th>
      <td>Top of buffer</td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>g</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>g</kbd> or <kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>k</kbd></td>
      <td>End of line</td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>l</kbd></td>
      <td>Beginning of line</td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>h</kbd></td>
      <td>First non-blank character</td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>i</kbd></td>
      <td>Bottom of buffer</td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>j</kbd></td>
      <td>End of buffer</td>
      <td><kbd>G</kbd>, <kbd>$</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>e</kbd></td>
      <td>Top of window</td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>t</kbd></td>
      <td>Bottom of window</td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>b</kbd></td>
      <td>Centre of window</td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>c</kbd></td>
      <td>Last (alternate) buffer</td>
      <td><kbd>Ctrl</kbd> + <kbd>^</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>a</kbd></td>
      <td>Path under cursor / in selection</td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>f</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>g</kbd>, <kbd>f</kbd></td>

Same goes for <kbd>v</kbd> and the ‘view’ menu, which is for adjusting
your viewport into the buffer.

      <th><q>View …</q></th>
      <td>Centre cursor vertically</td>
      <td><kbd>z</kbd>, <kbd>z</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>v</kbd>, <kbd>v</kbd> or <kbd>v</kbd>, <kbd>c</kbd></td>
      <td>Centre cursor horizontally</td>
      <td><kbd>v</kbd>, <kbd>m</kbd></td>
      <td>Cursor on top</td>
      <td><kbd>z</kbd>, <kbd>t</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>v</kbd>, <kbd>t</kbd></td>
      <td>Cursor on bottom</td>
      <td><kbd>z</kbd>, <kbd>b</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>v</kbd>, <kbd>b</kbd></td>
      <td>Scroll left</td>
      <td><kbd>z</kbd>, <kbd>h</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>v</kbd>, <kbd>h</kbd></td>
      <td>Scroll down</td>
      <td><kbd>Ctrl</kbd> + <kbd>e</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>v</kbd>, <kbd>j</kbd></td>
      <td>Scroll up</td>
      <td><kbd>Ctrl</kbd> + <kbd>y</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>v</kbd>, <kbd>k</kbd></td>
      <td>Scroll right</td>
      <td><kbd>z</kbd>, <kbd>l</kbd></td>
      <td><kbd>v</kbd>, <kbd>l</kbd></td>

  (*) The closest approximations I can find are
  <kbd>z</kbd>, <kbd>H</kbd> and <kbd>z</kbd>, <kbd>L</kbd> to scroll
  half a screen width horizontally. Or there’s <code>set

## Multiple selections

Pressing <kbd>x</kbd> selects a whole line, <kbd>x</kbd> again the
next instead; or hold shift and see that <kbd>X</kbd> sweeps up
multiple lines. Here’s where things get cool: sweep up a few lines
with <kbd>X</kbd> or <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>i</kbd>, <kbd>p</kbd> and
then press <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>s</kbd>. That splits the selection
*linewise* into multiple selections. Another way to accrue selections
is using <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>C</kbd> or
<kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>C</kbd>. Play around with
these yourself. If things get out of hand you can hit <kbd>Space</kbd>
to reset to one selection.

### Aligning columns interactively

This is one case where multiple selections are your best friend. You
just make your selections and hit <kbd>&</kbd> to align them


<h3 id="narrowing">Narrowing</h3>

Still think multiple selections are a gimmick? So did I. Until I tried
some of the narrowing mechanisms. What do I mean by that? Well, let’s
say you want to replace all occurrences of ‘sir’ with ‘mate’ inside a
particular paragraph. With your cursor situated somewhere within it,
you’d press <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>i</kbd>, <kbd>p</kbd> to select the
whole paragraph, then (and this is the good bit)

> <kbd>s</kbd>, <kbd>s</kbd>, <kbd>i</kbd>, <kbd>r</kbd>, <kbd>Enter</kbd>

to select each occurrence of ‘sir’. Now you have multiple selections.
Finally you’d type

> <kbd>c</kbd>, <kbd>m</kbd>, <kbd>a</kbd>, <kbd>t</kbd>, <kbd>e</kbd>,
> <kbd>Esc</kbd>

to change each into ‘mate’.

To achieve the same in Vim you’d need to specify the line range of the
paragraph in an ex command (perhaps with the help of visual mode,
i.e. <kbd>v</kbd>, <kbd>i</kbd>, <kbd>p</kbd>), and provide the ‘g’ flag.
In Kakoune, everything is achieved with the keyboard-based <q>text-editing
language</q> and as a result is more interactive in that it provides
incremental results so that you can make corrections on the fly.

You *can* enter a regular expression (see `:doc regex`) into the
<kbd>s</kbd> command, but often simple key-stroke-based interactions
thereafter can achieve the same effect while being easier to come up
with and adjust as you go. As a contrived example, imagine trying to
replace the word that comes immediately *after* every occurrence of a

A commonly used technique is to press <kbd>%</kbd> which selects the
entire buffer. Then you can hit <kbd>s</kbd> to select occurrences of
some pattern throughout the file. The information in the bottom right
keeps count of how many selections you have.

The <kbd>%</kbd>, <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>s</kbd> combo is useful for
operating linewise on entire files. For example,

> <kbd>%</kbd>, <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>s</kbd>,
> <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>k</kbd>, <kbd>i</kbd>, <kbd>n</kbd>,
> <kbd>c</kbd>, <kbd>l</kbd>, <kbd>u</kbd>, <kbd>d</kbd>, <kbd>e</kbd>,
> <kbd>Enter</kbd>

will select all lines that contain the word ‘include’; or using
<kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>K</kbd> we can do

> <kbd>%</kbd>, <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>s</kbd>,
> <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>K</kbd>, <kbd>:</kbd>,
> <kbd>$</kbd>, <kbd>Return</kbd>

to select all lines that don’t end with a colon. We could then do

> <kbd>Alt</kbd> \+ <kbd>k</kbd>, <kbd>^</kbd>,
> <kbd>d</kbd>, <kbd>e</kbd>, <kbd>f</kbd>, <kbd>Enter</kbd>

to narrow down further to only those that begin with ‘def’. Follow that
up with an <kbd>S</kbd> key like so:

> <kbd>S</kbd>, <kbd>\\</kbd>, <kbd>.</kbd>, <kbd>Enter</kbd>

to split each selection at every period. As you can see, the narrowing
tools are immensely powerful and the possibilities endless. And if
you’re still not satisfied, there’s the <kbd>$</kbd> key which filters
your selections by piping each one through any program you like and
keeping only those for which the program exists successfully—meaning you
could always write a little shell script to be the predicate of that

## Changes through external programs

Don’t get too excited about <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>$</kbd> before
you’ve met <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>|</kbd>.  This key is your
program-wielding text-processing glue. The idea is that you make your
selection(s) in Kakoune, type something of the form

    |program args ...<ret>

and watch the magic happen. For each selection, Kakoune feeds it as
standard input to the program, and replaces it with the standard output.

  <code>&lt;ret&gt;</code> refers to the Enter or Return key. See
  <code>:doc mapping</code> for more key names like this.

### Word count and formatting

Starting with a simple example, you could select the entire buffer
with <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>%</kbd>, then run it through *wc*(1) to
get a word count of your prose:

    %|wc -w<ret>

Or pipe it first through the appropriate
*[pandoc](https://pandoc.org/)*(1) command to convert it to plain text,
thereby eliding markup from your word count:

    %|pandoc -t plain|wc -w<ret>

Or you could select a paragraph and pipe that through to *fmt*(1) or
*par*(1), which are programs that nicely reflow paragraphs of text from
standard input. This is why Kakoune seems to lack important features
such as text reflowing; instead it makes it easy to delegate this sort
of processing to other programs, thereby adhering a little closer to the
Unix philosophy.

### Evaluating code within the buffer

If your buffer contained a Python expression, say

``` python
factorial = lambda n: 1 if n<1 else n*factorial(n-1)
print(factorial(13) + factorial(16))

then you could select those lines and pipe it into *python*(1) by typing
`|python<ret>`, leaving you with `20929016908800` as the


The <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>\!</kbd> key does the same but without
piping anything through to the program: it simply copies the output of
the program into the buffer. For instance, `!ls<ret>` will add a list
of the contents of the current directory before the selection. `!cat
example.sh<ret>` will add the lines of the file `example.sh` before
the selection.

### Inserting Emoji

Use <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>|</kbd> to conveniently pipe words like
‘smile’ 😄 and ‘house’ 🏠 to a program that converts stdin to emoji,
like this one liner:

``` bash
xargs -r printf ':%s:' | pandoc -f gfm -t plain

    The <code>-r</code> option is a GNU extension.
Maybe Pandoc is overkill here, but you get the point.

### Using the system clipboard

Piping to and from *xsel*(1) or *xclip*(1) is your interface to the X
clipboard. Now you can copy those snippets from Stack Overflow and feed
your cargo cult programming habit.

<th style="text-align: left;">Primary selection</th>
<th style="text-align: left;">Clipboard</th>
<tr class="odd">
<td style="text-align: left;"><code>$xsel -i</code></td>
<td style="text-align: left;"><code>$xsel -bi</code></td>
<tr class="even">
<td style="text-align: left;"><code>|xsel -i</code></td>
<td style="text-align: left;"><code>|xsel -bi</code></td>
<tr class="odd">
<td style="text-align: left;"><code>!xsel</code></td>
<td style="text-align: left;"><code>!xsel -b</code></td>

# User configuration

## Mapping keys

Of course, you can create key mappings for these things to your heart’s
content. Nice thing about Kakoune is it has a proper way of keeping
*user*-specific mappings separate from *global* mappings, thanks to the
scope parameter of `:map`. By default <kbd>,</kbd> is the prefix to all
user mappings.

As an example, here is a mapping I use all the

    map global user m ': format;w;make<ret>ga: echo Making<ret>' -docstring 'Format and write the file, then call *make*(1)'

It’s scoped globally because I want this to work everywhere. Now I just
hit <kbd>,</kbd>, <kbd>m</kbd> to

  - fix my sloppy formatting (`: format`)
      - the space after the colon prevents this command from being put
        into Kakoune’s prompt history
  - write the file (`;w`)
      - the semicolon separates Kakoune commands
  - run *make*(1)
      - `;make<ret>` calls Kakoune’s `:make` wrapper, which opens a new
      - `ga` goes back to the buffer I was working on
      - `: echo Making<ret>` is just for visual feedback.

Have a look at `:doc mapping` for the full story. Note that `:map` is
one of those commands that can take a `-docstring` argument, which
becomes part of the self-documenting hints that you see throughout the

Classic line-editing shortcuts like <kbd>Ctrl</kbd> \+ <kbd>w</kbd>
and <kbd>Ctrl</kbd> \+ <kbd>u</kbd> that predate even Unix are missing
from Kakoune’s insert mode; <q>those shortcuts do not fit the paradigm
that Kakoune implements</q> says the `:doc faq`, but for me this is
one case where practicality beats purity.

<small>See the

## Persistent configuration

Let’s say you’ve mapped a few keys and set a few options. How do you
make them persistent between *kak*(1) sessions?

Create the file `$HOME/.config/kak/kakrc` and place your mapping and
options in there. This is the analogue to one’s `$HOME/.vimrc`.

When you start *kak*(1), before sourcing your `kakrc` it first sources all
`*.kak` files within your `$HOME/.config/kak/autoload/` directory. That
means you can put anything—even Git repositories in there
(i.e. plugins)—and all non-Kakoune files don’t cause Kakoune any

<small>See *kak*(1) (<code>man kak</code>) for details on how exactly
Kakoune’s run-time files are sourced.</small>

Once your `autoload` directory exists, however, Kakoune decides not to
source the system run-time files under `/usr/share/kak/autoload/`, so
you’ll want to link that system directory symbolically into yours:

``` bash
    mkdir -p $HOME/.config/kak/autoload/
    ln -s /usr/share/kak/autoload/ $HOME/.config/kak/autoload/

## Formatting the entire buffer

The `:format` command is provided as a shortcut for
<kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>%</kbd>, <kbd>Shift</kbd> \+ <kbd>|</kbd>
followed by your formatter program, be it *fmt*(1), *par*(1) or
something else like a style linter. You just need to set the
`formatcmd` option.

    set window formatcmd 'par'

The `window` argument specifies the *scope* of this particular
assignment. See `:doc options set-option` and `:doc scope` for more

Also look at `autowrap_fmtcmd` and `autowrap-enable` which wrap lines
for you while typing, so it doesn’t feel like you’ve reverted to using

### Lightweight markup

If you’re writing in a lightweight markup language, be it Markdown,
ReStructuredText, AsciiDoc, or what have you, it’s nice to have a
program go through your writing and fix little formatting mistakes here
and there, remove trailing spaces and unnecessary line breaks and so
forth. Kakoune’s `:format` command lets you do this really smoothly
without leaving the editor. Just set `formatcmd` to some command that
calls your style linter with any appropriate arguments.

Pandoc can function as a style linter by telling it that the input and
output are of the same kind. ReStructuredText for example,

    set buffer formatcmd 'pandoc -f rst -t rst --reference-links'

where passing `--reference-links` is optional of course, but means you
can write an inline link and have it converted automatically to a
reference at the bottom of the file, which takes care of the otherwise
laborious task of managing references, their names and order by hand.

This could become slow for particularly large documents, and some style
linting programs will be slower than others. In this document, I’m using
Pandoc to reformat around 600 lines of text and it takes a fraction of a

### SCSS

In the screencast below you can see me fixing a poorly written
stylesheet using *prettier*(1) with this

``` ruby
set-option window formatcmd 'prettier --parser=scss'


## Hooks

You can use hooks to trigger a command when some event happens, such as
opening a new file, resizing the window, pressing a key in insert mode,
or the user being idle for some length of time. These also have an
associated scope. Read `:doc hooks` to see how they work.

### Filetype-specific run commands

Now, what if you want to set an option differently depending on the kind
of file you’re editing? You can do that using the WinSetOption hook:

    hook <scope> WinSetOption 'filetype=<filetype>' <command>

This hook is triggered whenever the filetype option is set to
`<filetype>`. The command can be any list of commands. So to set a few
options that would be something like this:

``` ruby
hook global WinSetOption filetype=(css|scss) %{
    set buffer indentwidth 2
    set buffer tabstop 2
    set buffer scrolloff 5,0

This can get repetitive for lots of different filetypes, so we can
factor this out using the function `filetype-hook` as defined below:

``` ruby
define-command filetype-hook -params 2 %{
    hook global WinSetOption 'filetype=(%arg{1})' %arg{2}

filetype-hook css|scss %{
    set-option window indentwidth 2
    set-option window tabstop 2
    set-option window scrolloff 5,0
    set-option window formatcmd 'prettier --parser=scss'

filetype-hook ruby|python %{
    set-option window indentwidth 4
    set-option window tabstop 4
    set-option window matching_pairs ( ) [ ] { }

# Should you use Kakoune?

There’s loads more to Kakoune, not least of which are its
[plugins](https://kakoune.org/plugins.html). But the potential for it to
be configured exactly how you like is huge, and it’s very easy to do so.
I haven’t even talked about `evaluate-commands` and `%sh{…}` blocks

Kakoune is so smooth in the way it uses existing programs; take the
clipboard for example: why should Kakoune bother with implementing a
feature specific to and dependent on X, when it can very easily be done
in run-time configuration by piping to and from a program such as xsel?
This is a taste of the Unix philosophy, and it’s what makes Kakoune so
wonderfully extensible.

But due to the difference in key mappings, existing Vim users will
become frustrated in the transition, and Vim veterans will be leaving
their beloved configuration behind, putting them back to square one. I
can see many Vim users dismissing Kakoune as an interesting idea, but
not worth the effort to learn. I mean, even [its
creator](https://github.com/mawww) describes it as an <q>experiment for a
better code editor</q>.

I have found that learning to use Kakoune’s key stroke language has
messed with my muscle memory somewhat when it comes to Vim and
crucially Readline, although not as much as I’d anticipated. Still, I
now use Emacs bindings in Readline, because they differ enough that I
don’t get confused.

<small>[GNU Readline](https://tiswww.case.edu/php/chet/readline/rltop.html) is
the line-editing library used by countless terminal-based programs.</small>

<small>**Update, August 2020:** After much experience with all four, my muscle
memory can switch smoothly between Emacs, Readline, vi and Kakoune.</small>

This write-up has been mostly positive, but my experience with Kakoune
has not been without issue:

  - I’m having to use <kbd>Alt</kbd> all the time now, which can be a bit
    fiddly to say the least.
  - There’s just no way to have the cursor turn into a pipe shape while
    in insert mode, which is a shame because many people rely on that to
    indicate whether they’re in insert mode.
  - Insert mode auto wrapping, which uses *fold*(1), will occasionally
    create a new line in the middle of a word I’m writing.
  - Some people have reported slow startup times; for me it’s a small
    fraction of a second which is tolerable but doesn’t have the same
    *instant* feel as Vim.

# Further reading

  - [kakoune.org](http://kakoune.org/) &ndash; Official site
  - [<cite>README.asciidoc</cite>](https://github.com/mawww/kakoune/blob/master/README.asciidoc)
  - the [Kakoune wiki](https://github.com/mawww/kakoune/wiki)
  - [<cite>TRAMPOLINE</cite>](https://github.com/mawww/kakoune/blob/master/contrib/TRAMPOLINE)
    &ndash; walkthrough of Kakoune’s basic editing primatives.
  - [Kakoune Community Hub](https://discuss.kakoune.com/) where you can
    find a [discussion of this
  - [<cite>Why Kakoune — The quest for a better code editor</cite>](https://kakoune.org/why-kakoune/why-kakoune.html) &ndash; Maxime Coste
  - [<cite>Kakoune</cite>](https://brhfl.com/2018/07/kakoune/) &ndash; Bri Hefele

A  => src/article/2020-03-28-libreoffice-concatenate.md +102 -0
@@ 1,102 @@
# A troublesome task

In a recent project, I found myself tasked with the laborious feat of
painstakingly joining together tables, hundreds of thousands of rows
each, from several years of new-file-every-month spreadsheets—by hand.

At that moment, my human eyeballs were paused hovering, mouse hopelessly
scrolling past millions of cells; a bleak air beset the white walls of
my otherwise cozy student flat on that mild March morning.

I soon gathered up my pessimism until it amounted to what you might call
a stubborn sort of frustration-fueled optimism and looked for a better

# A simple solution

Naturally, I reached for my office suite’s documentation. Although
LibreOffice is primarily a graphical application, its little-known
command-line features can be life saving. A leisurely perusal of its man
page armed me with the `--convert-to` option, which does what you’re

    libreoffice --convert-to csv ./*.ods

Some ten billion CPU cycles later—a few seconds in mammal time—I had
trivialised a daunting task that otherwise would have threatened my
lunch break. My thirty-something spreadsheets were now thirty-something
CSV files, leaving only to concatenate them.

Of course, CSV is not a spreadsheet format. Any formulas, comments,
charts and other media would be lost in this process. Fortunately for
me, these spreadsheets were just holding raw data.

Each had its first five rows reserved for useless metadata (title and
time period), and the sixth for table headings; the remainder were the
dreaded data. Using sed(1) I was able to extract only the sixth row and
concatenate the data of all CSV files onto that, writing it to

        sed -n 6p ./*.csv      # Print the table headings line;
        for i in ./*.csv; do   # For each CSV file,
            sed 1,6d "$i"      # print its contents except lines 1-6;
    ) > result.csv             # Write that to result.csv.

With just a few simple commands, I had a single well-formed CSV file
holding *all* the data, ready to be imported into LibreOffice or
indeed into R or Python or what have you. I needn’t have even fumbled
for the mouse.

# Potential complications

Throughout that process, I was working under the assumption that each
spreadsheet was written the same way—five rows of information I don’t
care about, the same 10 or so table headings on the sixth row followed
by data and only data as far as the eye can scroll.

The presence of stray cells or breaking changes to the overall design or
nature of data gatherment in the past few years could have rendered my
monstrous CSV a totally meaningless muddle of words and numbers riddled
with silly mistakes (like many of my assignments).

In an effort to justify this assumption, I did poke around in some of
the spreadsheets at regular intervals until I was confident it was all
in the same format.

# More terminal trickery

There are other things LibreOffice can do programmatically. For example,
you could print a huge batch of documents to PDF

> **--print-to-file** \[**--printer-name** *printer\_name*\]
> \[**--outdir** *output\_dir*\] *file*…
> Batch print files to file. If **--printer-name** is not specified
> the default printer is used. If **--outdir** is not specified then
> the current working directory is used as the output directory for the
> converted files.
> Examples:
>     --print-to-file *.doc
> Prints all .doc files to the current working directory using the
> default printer.

or onto actual paper.

> **-p** *file*…
> Prints the given files to the default printer and ends. The splash
> screen does not appear.

LibreOffice also has a flexible macro system for manipulating
spreadsheets and text documents with Java, Python, JavaScript, or its
own flavour of Basic—although documentation seems limited.

While the `--convert-to` option may not be groundbreaking, and there
may well be other viable solutions, I was pleasantly surprised to find
such functionality in an office suite. I’d be interested to hear of
praiseworthy command-line support in other graphical applications\!

A  => src/barn-swallow.jpg +0 -0
A  => src/glenda.jpg +0 -0
A  => src/index.html.sh +43 -0
@@ 1,43 @@

# cosine.blue -- static site generator
# Copyright (C) 2020  Gregory L Chamberlain <greg@cosine.blue>

# This file is part of cosine.blue.
# cosine.blue is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
# cosine.blue is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
# WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# General Public License for more details.
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with cosine.blue.  If not, see
# <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

. share/lib.sh

x h2 Archive

find src/article -type f | sort -r | while IFS= read -r item
    [ -f "$item" ] || continue
    case $item in
        *.md) href=${basename%.md}.html ;;
        *.md.sh) href=${basename%.md.sh}.html ;;
        *.html.sh) href=${basename%.sh} ;;
        *) href=$basename ;;
    . env/"$basename".sh
        x "a href=\"$href\"" "$title" | x h2
        x p "$subtitle"
        x p "$date"
    } | x li
done | x 'ol id="archive" reversed'

A  => src/kak-cover.png +0 -0
A  => src/libreoffice-concatenate.png +0 -0
A  => src/licence.md +17 -0
@@ 1,17 @@
# Licence

Except where otherwise noted, all content of this website,
cosine.blue, is available under free/libre copyleft terms.

All original text, such as blog posts and essays, is available under
the [Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0

All original code is available under the terms of the [GNU General
Public License Version 3 or
later](https://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl-3.0.html) &mdash; this
includes any inline documentation and the [source code of the website

For any further questions, feel free to [contact